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open end wrench

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... of galling at elevated temperatures is another characteristic of aluminum coatings. Stainless steel fasteners for use at 650 °C (1200 °F) have been aluminum coated just to prevent galling. Coated nuts can be removed with an ordinary wrench after many hours at these temperatures, which is impossible...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tt2.t51060195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-355-3
... of fasteners and studs can be determined on the ends, wrench flats, or unthreaded shanks after removal of any oxide, decarburization, plating, or other coating material. Rockwell or Vickers hardness standards may be used at the option of the manufacturer. Hardness is determined at midradius of a transverse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... are the first line of defense. A good, conscientious operator will have his equipment outlast any other in the field. The author has said many times: “When a catastrophic failure occurs, don’t look for a microscopic cause. Find the cowboy at the wheel or the one that threw the monkey wrench into the works...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
.... Rapid fatigue at the base thread of a differential holding bolt (grade 8). As a graphic example of machining incapabilities, Fig. 5-18 should be observed. Each spline had been individually cut with a small vertical milling cutter that was moved from the open end to the shoulder. In order...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... failure mode. Tightening of Bolts The determination of the actual preload in a given bolt-nut combination is difficult. Tightening with a torque wrench is the simplest but is likely to be inaccurate unless calibrated. Various devices exist that allow the clamping force-torque relation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... area of a bar or tube, or for increasing the internal soundness of an ingot prior to traditional open-die forging. Heated forging stock is held between grooved dies, and pressure is applied to the end of the stock in the direction of its axis. Work is done by a heading tool that spreads the end...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., including open-die and closed-die forging, hot upset and roll forging, high-energy-rate forging, ring rolling, rotary swaging, radial and orbital forging, isothermal and hot-die forging, precision forging, and cold forging. The chapter also includes information on cold and hot extrusion and drawing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
...% YS in the bolt. In any critical bolting application, it is the designer’s responsibility to specify all bolt parameters such as material, code classification, size, seating torque, and lubricant. Some vehicle manufacturers go so far as to demand use of a torque wrench and their posted seating torques...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... with cracks that opened up during bolt tensioning. Source: Ref 1 Brittle Fractures Brittle fractures are failures in which the material fails in a brittle manner. Brittle fractures typically manifest themselves as a sudden fracture with little or no deformation prior to cracking. Structural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... molten aluminum. In smaller furnaces, electricity or gas are used as heat sources. The term reverberatory furnace is a throwback to the World War II era, when the most common fuels for hearth aluminum melting were coal or coke. This necessitated locating the heat source or fire box at one end...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... in selection of tempering temperature. The chapter ends with a section discussing various effects, advantages, and disadvantages of precipitation hardening. austempering austenitizing martempering precipitation hardening quenching steel temper embrittlement tempering HARDENING OF STEEL...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... without moving the torch. High frequency is used to initiate the arc, minimizing start problems. Proper techniques are especially necessary in tack welding because of possible contamination in starting and stopping the arc. Filler wire also must be shielded. To prevent contamination, the hot end...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... drilling end effector, is used to drill holes in the control surface shown in Fig. 11.12 . Another approach is to integrate drilling units into the assembly fixture, using what are called numerically controlled drill jigs . An example of such a relatively low-cost unit is shown in Fig. 11.13...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... components. It ends with a section on risk-based approach applicable to heat treated steel components. heat treatment steel components welded components component design heat-transfer model DESIGN involves different creative aspects: planning, development, procedures, availability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.t62860343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5
... for understanding the results of compatibility tests. Impact Tests One of the most probable ignition mechanisms is by an impact in the presence of oxygen, whether it is caused by a wrench dropped in an oxygen spill, a piece of weld slag impinging on a bend in an oxygen pipeline, or simply closing a valve...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.t69870267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... of the environment. The chapter ends with a discussion on the problems encountered and protective measures that are based on the state-of-the-art as practiced daily by corrosion and petroleum engineers and production personnel. corrosion corrosion control methods petroleum production oil and gas storage...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fdsm.9781627083447
EISBN: 978-1-62708-344-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... that is hot reduced ( broken down ) on two- or four-high reversing mills, or a three-roll arrangement with an elevator for the workpiece. A recent development is the use of twin-roll casting to produce sheet or plate directly from molten metal. In any case, a hot slab is produced; unless the end product...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1983
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mlt.9781627083485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-348-5