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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... surface film. It describes bulk and surface reactions that contribute to SCC, including dissolution, mass transport, absorption, diffusion, and embrittlement, and their role in crack nucleation and growth. It also discusses crack tip chemistry, grain-boundary interactions, and the effect of stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... that promote such transformations and, in turn, how they affect the structure of various phases and the rate at which they form. The chapter also discusses the concepts of transformation kinetics, minimum free energy, and nucleation and growth, and provides information on alloying, interphase...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., a large enough variation or fluctuation in the applied stress, and a sufficiently large number of cycles of the applied stress. The discussion covers high-cycle fatigue, low-cycle fatigue, and fatigue crack propagation. The chapter then discusses the stages where fatigue crack nucleation and growth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... diffusion, nucleation, and growth. It also discusses alloying, heat treating, and defect formation and briefly covers condenser tube materials. alloying elements austenitic stainless steels boiler tubes condenser tubes continuous cooling transformation diagram creep-resistant steels ferritic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... hypereutectoid steels. It discusses the factors that influence the kinetics of the process, including carbon diffusion and the morphology of the original structure. It describes the nucleation and growth of austenite grains, the effect of grain size on mechanical properties, and the difference between coarse...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the isothermal transformation of austenite to pearlite, bainite, martensite, proeutectoid ferrite, and proeutectoid cementite. It describes the transformation mechanisms in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and hypereutectoid steels, the factors that influence nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the final microstructure, and how the associated phase transformations are driven by nucleation and growth processes. It describes diffusionless and diffusive growth mechanisms and provides detailed information on the properties, structure, and behaviors of the transformation products produced, namely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter describes the processes involved in alloy production, including melting, casting, solidification, and fabrication. It discusses the effects of alloying on solidification, the formation of solidification structures, supercooling, nucleation, and grain growth. It describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the structures, phases, and phase transformations observed in metals and alloys as they solidify and cool to lower temperatures. It begins with a review of the solidification process, covering nucleation, grain growth, and the factors that influence grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... become grains in the final solidified structure. The crystalline structure within each grain is uniform but changes abruptly at the interfaces (grain boundaries) with adjacent crystals. This process of forming nuclei in the freezing melt and their subsequent growth is known as a nucleation and growth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... embryos for nucleation. Solute atoms then diffuse to the clusters from the surrounding matrix and convert some of them to nuclei of a new phase. During the early phases of precipitation, the equilibrium phase does not immediately form, but an intermediate crystal structure related to it grows in close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... grain is uniform but changes abruptly at the interfaces (grain boundaries) with adjacent crystals. This process of forming nuclei in the freezing melt and their subsequent growth is characterized as a nucleation and growth process. Fig. 2.13 Nucleation and growth during solidification. Source...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... 8.10 . Pearlite nodules nucleate at prior austenite grain boundaries and triple points to minimize the free energy needed for the transformation. Each nodule contains sub-units (colonies) of cementite and ferrite lamellae; each colony has a specific orientation relation with the parent austenite grain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Aluminum Alloys , B. Mater. Sci. , Vol 24 , 2001 , p 345 – 353 10.1007/BF02708630 28. Murty B.S. , Kori S.A. , and Chakraborty M. , Grain Refinement of Aluminium and Its Alloys by Heterogeneous Nucleation and Alloying , Int. Mater. Rev. , Vol 47 ( No. 1 ), 2002 , p 3 – 29...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... usually conducted to reduce residual stresses, often to prevent stress-corrosion cracking or minimize distortion. During stress-relief operations, the temperature and time are controlled so there is not a major reduction in strength or hardness. Recrystallization can be defined as the nucleation and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... DESCRIBES ferritic microstructures that form during continuous cooling of carbon steels. Ferritic microstructures identified as proeutectoid ferrite have already been discussed in Chapter 4, “Pearlite, Ferrite, and Cementite,” in this book. These forms of ferrite nucleate as equiaxed grains on austenite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... hardening do so by forming coherent precipitates within the matrix. The first step in the aging process is the congregation of solute atoms in the matrix lattice. These solute-rich regions are called clusters and are the embryos for nucleation. Solute atoms then diffuse to the clusters from the surrounding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... , The Austenite/Ferrite Front Migration Rate during Heating of IF Steel , ISIJ International , Vol 46 ( No. 10 ), 2006 , p 1500 – 1509 10.2355/isijinternational.46.1500 13. Dippenaar R.J. and Honeycombe R. , The Crystallography and Nucleation of Pearlite , Proc. R. Soc. Lond...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... give the volume fraction of the different phases, because the nucleation and growth kinetics, determined by the diffusion rate, in the solid phases determine the time required to reach equilibrium. Fig. 6.3 Phase diagram with a peritectic reaction. Source: Ref 6.2...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... first described by Gibbs in his treatment of the thermodynamic stability of undercooled or supersaturated phases. It is does not involve a nucleation step, which is the mechanism of classical nucleation and growth ( Fig. 9.15a ) of precipitates from a metastable solid solution. Instead, spinodal...