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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... 94B40 790-845 1450-1550 192 9840 790-845 1450-1550 207 Comparative Brinell hardness resulting from annealing, normalizing, and quenching of various steels Table 5 Comparative Brinell hardness resulting from annealing, normalizing, and quenching of various steels Grade of steel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the mechanical properties of ferrite/pearlite microstructures in medium-carbon steels. annealing ferrite normalizing pearlite spherical carbides spheroidizing THIS CHAPTER DESCRIBES heat treatments that are designed to produce uniformity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure and properties of annealed and normalized steels containing more than 0.25% carbon. It shows, using detailed micrographs, how incrementally higher levels of carbon affect the structure and distribution of pearlite and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... carbides in mottled or chilled irons and conversion of pearlite to ferrite for maximum machinability 900–950 1650–1750 1–3 h plus 1 h/2.54 cm (1 in.) of cross section (c) Furnace cool to 315 °C (600 °F). Cool in air from 315 °C to room temperature. Normalizing anneal Elimination of massive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...) Heating the steel rapidly to 1100–1200 °C (2010–2190 °F) for 8–16 h, furnace cooling to 800–850 °C (1470–1560 °F), and then cooling to room temperature in still air. It is performed on steel ingots and castings to minimize chemical segregation. Normalizing Heating the steel to 40–50 °C (80–90 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... here are primarily from AISI. It presents the classification of tool steels and discusses the principles and processes of tool steel heat treating, namely normalizing, annealing, hardening, and tempering. Various factors associated with distortion in several tool steels are also covered. The chapter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Fig. 10.26 Medium carbon steel, with a microstructure originally similar to the one in Fig. 10.23 (overheated). The steel has been subjected to a new austenitization for normalizing, in the intercritical region (temperature was too low for complete austenitization). The pro-eutectoid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
...Abstract Abstract The through-hardening process is generally used for gears that do not require high surface hardness. Four different methods of heat treatment are primarily used for through-hardened gears. In ascending order of achievable hardness, these methods are annealing, normalizing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
... are primarily used for through-hardened gears: annealing, normalizing and annealing, normalizing and tempering, and quenching and tempering. This chapter begins with a discussion of these through-hardening processes. This is followed by sections providing some factors affecting the design and hardness levels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the types, methods, and advantages of heat treating procedures, including annealing, normalizing, tempering, and case hardening. It describes the iron-carbon system, the formation of equilibrium and metastable phases, and the effect of alloy elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... they are added, and how they affect various properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. It explains how silicon, chromium, and nickel, in particular, improve high-temperature, corrosion, and wear performance. annealing corrosion resistance gray iron hardenability normalizing stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... ductile iron hardenability normalizing alloying elements nodulizing agents Composition Elevated-temperature properties Introduction and Overview Composition Control and Effects of Alloying Elements Magnesium Treatment Effects of Inoculation on Properties Effects of Alloying...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., such as ductility, formability, and machinability. This chapter discusses various heat treatment processes, namely annealing, stress relieving, normalizing, spheroidizing, and hardening by austenitizing, quenching and tempering. It also discusses two types of interrupted quenching processes: martempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter introduces the principal heat treating processes, namely normalizing, annealing, stress relieving, surface hardening, quenching, and tempering. An overview of four of the more popular surface hardening treatments, namely carburizing, carbonitriding, nitriding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Influence of alloy content on hardness of quenched and tempered gray iron test castings. Castings were normalized to the same hardness range before being austenitized for hardening and were oil quenched from 850 °C (1560 °F). Source: Ref 5 , 6 Fig. 10 Strength and ductility ranges of as-cast...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...Abstract Abstract Fatigue fractures are generally considered the most serious type of fracture in machinery parts simply because fatigue fractures can and do occur in normal service, without excessive overloads, and under normal operating conditions. This chapter first discusses the three...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htgpge.t67320033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-347-8
..., molybdenum), normally are used. The processes involved in hardening, tempering, recarburizing, and cold treatment of carburized and quenched gears are discussed. Next, the chapter reviews the selection of materials for carburized gears and considerations related to carbon content, core hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... purposes. It discusses the effect of normal and planar anisotropy, the development and use of flow stress curves, and how formability is usually measured and expressed. It explains how formability measurements serve as a guide for process and tool design engineers as well as others. It also discusses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... linear elastic fracture toughness, testing of thin sheets and films, normalization methods, and hysteresis methods. fracture resistance testing polymers linear elastic fracture toughness J-integral testing thin sheets thin films normalization methods hysteresis methods POLYMERIC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... of the titanium-aluminum phase diagram, focusing on the properties, compositions, and microstructures of alpha-2 Ti3Al alloys. It then describes the properties, microstructures, and compositions of orthorhombic, gamma, and near-gamma alloys as well as the processing methods and procedures normally used...