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nitrogen liberation

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Abstract Several process parameters must be considered to ensure success in achieving desired metallurgical properties and to minimize distortion. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the liberation of nitrogen, dissociation of the gas at the selected nitriding temperature, why...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... of the nitrogen-based atmosphere, thus reducing the risk of distortion yet still producing a hard, wear-resistant surface with good corrosion resistance. Ammonia was decomposed, or “cracked,” by heat to liberate the nascent nitrogen necessary for the process. It was not long before Machlet realized that he...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... the gas into finer bubbles. Any hydrogen dissolved in the melt due to the dissociation of moisture contamination is liberated along with the nitrogen bubbles. The melt flows across a foam filter to arrest any oxides. The filtered metal flows into a holder on a doser, where the metered amount of metal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... source. When heat is applied from either an internal or external source, the salt melts and liberates nitrogen to the steel for diffusion. When a steel workpiece is introduced into the salt and heated up to a temperature in the molten salt, similar reactions begin to occur as in gas nitriding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract The overall chemical composition of metals and alloys is most commonly determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and optical emission spectroscopy (OES). High-temperature combustion and inert gas fusion methods are typically used to analyze dissolved gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t62440103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... environments. Fig. 3.1 Interrelationship of joining atmospheres Two distinct types of atmosphere are used for soldering, namely: Chemically inert gas atmospheres (e.g., argon, nitrogen, helium, vacuum). These function by excluding oxygen and other gaseous elements that might react...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Dissolved Carbon Dioxide The source of carbon dioxide is mainly condenser air leakage or alkalinity in the feed water in the form of an HCO 3 − radical. The decomposition of bicarbonate, carbonate alkalinities, and organic matter liberates carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide reacts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... operation in air or other oxidizing environments. Fig. 3.1 Interrelationship of joining atmospheres Two distinct types of atmosphere are used for brazing: Chemically inert gas atmospheres (e.g., argon, nitrogen, helium, vacuum). These function by excluding oxygen and other gaseous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... ma- terial is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition as to cause simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and, by diffusion, create a concen- tration gradient. The heat treating process is completed by cooling at a rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., ready to precipitate as inclusions that alter local composition. The tendency of carbon and nitrogen to form precipitates is controlled by diffusion rates, which if elevated by increasing temperature can cause debilitating, composition-altering precipitation. The even more slowly diffusing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.9781627082860
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... medium for heating castings to a controlled temperature with a minimum of oxidization. Reducing or carburizing atmospheres normally have little effect on iron castings because the iron is fairly well saturated with carbon at the heat treating temperatures. In the absence of special alloys, nitrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... Carbon-carbon (C-C), carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), ceramic matrix composite (CMC), carbon-silicon carbide (C-SiC), glass-ceramic matrix composite (GCMC), metal matrix composite (MMC), silicon-aluminum-oxygen-nitrogen (SIALON) While reinforcements such as fibers, whiskers, or particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pb.t51230221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-351-5
... nitride, a gaseous reaction occurs, with the liberation of nitrogen: A l + 2 S i 3 N i 4 = A l + 6 S i + 4 N 2 In both cases, the “free” silicon dissolves in the molten aluminum braze, thereby altering its melting range, as well as the mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... exhibit five major chemical and metallurgical characteristics that influence welding operations: Sensitivity to embrittlement when contaminated by small amounts of carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen ( Ref 12.14 ) Reactivity when heated to welding temperatures Sensitivity to embrittlement...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., the deteriorating effect under normal long-term service condi- tions. acid rain. Atmospheric precipitation with a pH below 5.6 to 5.7. Burning of fossil fuels for heat and power is the major factor in the generation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which are converted into nitric and sulfuric acids washed down...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560361
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... liberated by the dissociation of the undersurface of the oxide diffuse outward to form more oxide at the outer surface of the layer. Oxygen may migrate inward if microfissures develop in the separated outer layers and convert the separated layers from the expected FeO to the higher oxides Fe 3 O 4 and Fe 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 January 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.itfdtktmse.t56060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-440-6
..., it is accomplished by bombarding the target (solid discs, rods, or cylinders) with ions from a gaseous plasma (typically argon, although nitrogen and oxygen are also used). Sputtering is also one of the most versatile PVD processes. Because the target (coating) material is passed from solid to vapor and back...