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nitrogen defects

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
...Influence of alloying elements on the thermodynamic activity of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen Table 1 Influence of alloying elements on the thermodynamic activity of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen i J Al C Cr Mn Mo N Ni O S Si Ti W O .04 .14 −.02 −.01...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... on the Formation of Defects during Thermolysis of Powder Moldings , J. Mater. Res. , Vol 11 , 1996 , p 830 – 840 10.1557/JMR.1996.0101 Selected References Selected References • Cima M.J. , Dudziak M. , and Lewis J.A. , Observation of Poly(Vinyl Butyral)-Dibutyl Phthalate Binder...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... for subsurface porosity defects are nitrogen and hydrogen. Types of Gas Porosity Defects Behavior of Gases How to Treat Pinhole and Blowhole Problems This type of porosity has a rough, irregular shape. It is caused by a lack of adequate feed metal during solidification. This defect is an internal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... such as tungsten. The nitrogen-stabilized LDI represent the most serious type of defect because the high hardness, low ductility, and possible voids or cracks dramatically reduce fatigue properties. Cold-hearth melting has been shown to reduce the rate of LDI occurrence. The reduction takes place by dissolution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen and/or from the formation of intermetallic phases. The interaction of such defects among themselves combined with porosity can make the interpretation of corrosion data rather difficult. Comparing materials of different origin and/or different processing may yield unexpected...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... into an AOD vessel, which consists of a refractory-lined steel shell mounted on a tiltable trunnion ring ( Fig. 12 ). As shown in Fig. 12 , process gases (oxygen, argon, and nitrogen) are injected through submerged, side-mounted tuyeres. The dilution of oxygen with inert gas, argon, or nitrogen causes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... 22.25 ). Figure 22.4 shows schematically some characteristics of ion implantation by 100 keV nitrogen ions in iron ( Ref 22.26 ). Each ion creates a large number of point defects, and the lower right of Fig. 22.4 illustrates the formation of a cascade of vacancy-interstitial pairs or Frenkel defects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... for various hydrogen-nitrogen mixtures in equilibrium with metal/metal oxide. Source: Ref 25 Fig. 5.16 Auger composition-depth profile of a 316L part sintered in hydrogen at 1260 °C (2300 °F) Fig. 5.17 Auger composition-depth profile of a 316L part vacuum sintered for 30 min at 1295 °C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... a defect in the base metal. The defect existed prior to reconstruction. The metal did not have adequate toughness to arrest the propagation of the crack. The region around the defect had been embrittled by heating due to cutting and welding. The steel did not meet the API 650 Standard of the American...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... to complete a satisfactory weld before precipitation occurs. Thus, accurate knowledge of material history is vital. Likewise, variations within specification of nitrogen content influence the time it takes intermetallic phases to form. Once a welding procedure is qualified for an alloy with given nitrogen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... welding atmospheres on properties of welds in commercially pure titanium Welding atmosphere Stock thickness Weld-joint bend angle (a) , degrees Weld-metal notch toughness (b) Parent-metal hardness, VHN Maximum weld hardness, VHN Nitrogen in weld, % mm in. kg · m ft · lbf Dry helium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... steel. (a) Uncycled sample (grain size: ASTM No. 11). (b) Cycled sample (grain size: ASTM No. 15). Original magnification: 800× When a metal is plastically deformed, the flow of the metal matrix generates defects in the crystal structure. These defects (called dislocations) are planes of atoms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Point defects: A, interstitial atom; B, vacancy; C, foreign atom in lattice site Fig. 7 Section through an edge dislocation (indicated by the symbol ⊥) with an axis perpendicular to the plane of the illustration and line dislocation. (a) Positive edge dislocation, (b) negative edge dislocation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... cooling rates, the stainless steel is stabilized with niobium to prevent sensitization. Sintering in nitrogen-containing atmospheres must be done at temperatures high enough to prevent Cr 2 N formation during sintering ( Fig. 5.44 and section 5.2.4 in Chapter 5 ). Otherwise, the steel will sensitize...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... and in the crevice between spatter and base metal. Fig. 17 (a) Unetched and (b) etched cross sections of a type 304 stainless steel weldment showing chloride pitting attack along a crevice by a lack-of-fusion defect. Service environment: hot tap water Fig. 19 Selective attack of a type 317L...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and heals itself in the presence of oxygen. Other elements added to improve particular characteristics include nickel, molybdenum, copper, titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, nitrogen, sulfur, and selenium. Carbon is normally present in amounts ranging from less than 0.03% to over 1.0% in certain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... General Component Production Inspection Powder Metallurgy Disk Alloys Defects and Problems in P/M Superalloy Products General Mechanically Alloyed Superalloys Mechanical Alloying to Produce Powder Consolidation to Produce MA Components Mechanically Alloyed Product Availability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... in the molten or solid state, depending on concentrations. It is desirable to keep sulfur and nitrogen low enough that precipitation is in the solid state so that precipitates do not agglomerate and cause large primary inclusions that become unsightly surface defects. TiCS forms in the solid state if sulfur...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the corrosion behavior of beryllium in gaseous atmospheres, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. It also discusses the development of high-temperature corrosion-resistant beryllium alloys. beryllium alloys beryllium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.9781627082693
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3