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nitrate ions

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...). As with other hydrated alkaline earth nitrates, thermal decomposition of beryllium nitrate tri- and tetrahydrates occurs through hydrolysis to give nitric acid, which subsequently decomposes, rather than by thermal breakdown of the nitrate ion itself. Anhydrous beryllium nitrate has been prepared...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., nitrate, carbonate, and bicarbonate, and they are replaced by chloride. The treatment keeps boiler parts free from scale formation and corrosion. Zeolite Softening Zeolite is hydrated sodium aluminosilicate (Na 2 O Al 2 O 3 .3SiO 2 .2H 2 O), capable of exchanging reversibly its sodium ions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... chloride • • Ammonium fluosilicate • Ammonium hydroxide • • • Ammonium nitrate • Aniline • Barium chloride • • Barium nitrate • Calcium bromide...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... and the inaccessibility of the 3d orbital, which is required to achieve s 1 p 3 d 2 hybridization. This hybridization electron characteristic is a feature of all the other elements of the first short period of the periodic table. The beryllium ion, Be 2+ , occurs in hydrated form in aqueous solution and in hydrated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.9781627082815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... ). This is the proprietary, patented UG3P process developed by Ugine ( Ref 1 ) or Henckel’s “CleanOx” process. Electrolytic pickling is commonly used in the production of cold-rolled stainless. This process uses alternating positive and negative polarization in baths using sulfates or nitrates. The H + ions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Of cials and Code Administrators bisphenol A benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride velocity of light cellulose acetate cellulose-acetate-butyrate cellulose acetate-propionate compact disk cellulose nitrate coordination number Canadian Standards Association coef cient of thermal expansion chlorotri...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
.... Idealized uniform corrosion occurs when the flux of metal ions from the surface and the flux of cathodic reactants to the surface are uniform to atomic dimensions. From a practical standpoint, uniform corrosion occurs when localized anodic and cathodic sites are sufficiently small and uniformly distributed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of H 2 O to O 2 . If the imposed potential is removed and the “free” electrode potential is measured as a function of time, then the smooth decrease in potential shown in Fig. 5.1(b) is observed. This smooth decrease is due to the diffusion of accumulated copper ions from the interface. Fig. 5.1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.9781627083027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... Abstract Surface modification technologies improve the performance of tool steels. This chapter discusses the processes involved in oxide coatings, nitriding, ion implantation, chemical and physical vapor deposition processing, salt bath coating, laser and electron beam surface modification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... course of the aging of aluminum hydroxide, which is first formed during corrosion in an amorphous form, still another aluminum trihydroxide, gibbsite or hydrargillite, can also be formed, especially if ions of the alkali metals are present. Beginning at a temperature of about 230 °C (445 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... be demonstrated by considering the corrosion of iron in water. When iron is immersed in water, the corrosion reaction of interest is the reaction between iron atoms in the metal and the corrosion products of the iron that is, ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) in solution. This reaction can be expressed as the following...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... sulfates, nitrates, nitrites, chloride-containing species, and even pure water. Environments reported to cause stress-corrosion cracking of copper-base alloys Table 7.1 Environments reported to cause stress-corrosion cracking of copper-base alloys Alloy Environment Ref β brass Deionized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... in aqueous corrosion. Nitrate and chromate ions are comparatively innocuous unless present in amounts sufficient to substantially increase the conductivity of the water [ Darwin and Buddery 1960b ]. Cupric and ferric ions can exert a strongly corrosive effect. The normally passive beryllium oxide film...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... The chapter also covers ion implantation and laser alloying. anodizing conversion coating diffusion coating pack cementation SURFACE TREATMENTS that change the surface chemistry of a metal or alloy, but that do not involve intentional buildup or increase in part dimension, include...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... be oxidizing to the parts. Atomic nitrogen generally comes from ammonia or the plasma of ion nitriding. Hydrogen can come from water vapor, hydrogen gas, or hydrocarbon gases (e.g., natural gas, light fuel oil, butane, or propane). Sulfur comes from contact with sulfur-containing fuels or residual...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... temperatures and high facility costs discourage widespread use of this process. Cleaning salt baths are formulated from a variety of inorganic chemical compounds. Among the more common ingredients are alkali hydroxides, alkali nitrates and nitrites, alkali chlorides, and alkali fluorides. By adjusting...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... hydrogen electrode with hydrogen ions at unity activity/concentration (a = 1, aqueous) Elements of the Process Atmospheric corrosion is an aqueous process, and its mechanism is electrochemical. There is not only a transfer of mass during the chemical reaction but also an interchange of charged...