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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. These metals are considered refractory because of their high melting points, high-temperature mechanical stability, and resistance to softening at elevated temperatures. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Abstract This article discusses the role of alloying in the production and use of common refractory metals, including molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium. It provides an overview of each metal and its alloys, describing the compositions, properties, and processing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., niobium, and cobalt and their alloys; polymers; and other nonmetallic materials, including rubber, carbon and graphite, and woods. corrosion characteristics structural materials corrosion applications materials selection carbon steels weathering steels alloy steels nickel copper aluminum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Medium-carbon steels are typically hardened for high-strength, high-fatigue-resistant applications by austenitizing, quenching to martensite, and tempering. This chapter explains how microalloying with vanadium, niobium, and/or titanium provides an alternate way to improve the mechanical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Alloy steels are alloys of iron with the addition of carbon and one or more of the following elements: manganese, chromium, nickel, molybdenum, niobium, titanium, tungsten, cobalt, copper, vanadium, silicon, aluminum, and boron. Alloy steels exhibit superior mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... niobium- and vanadium-containing steels, and high-strength low-alloy steels. Chapter 5 discusses the composition, microstructure, and properties of these workhorse materials and explains how to identify the cause of production-related issues such as lamellar tearing and ferrite-pearlite banding. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... grades of HSLA steel along with information on available mill forms, key characteristics, and intended uses. The article explains how small amounts of alloying elements, particularly vanadium, niobium, and titanium, control not only the properties of HSLA steels, but also their manufacturability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
..., copper, titanium, zirconium, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum alloys. hydrogen damage iron-base alloys nickel alloys aluminum alloys copper alloys titanium alloys zirconium alloys vanadium alloys niobium alloys tantalum alloys HYDROGEN DAMAGE is a form of environmentally assisted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables that list the composition and capabilities of etchants that reveal the microstructure of metals and alloys, including aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, radioactive metals, rare earth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... through the molten metal to selectively remove carbon without removing chromium (described in detail elsewhere in this book), reduced the carbon plus nitrogen levels sufficiently that their effect could be nearly negated by small additions of titanium or niobium, which combine strongly with carbon and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... , 2nd ed. , ASM International , 2002 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.9781627082679 2. Kumar P. , The Role of Niobium and Tantalum in Superalloys , Advances in High Temperature Structural Materials and Protective Coatings , Koul A.K. , Ed., National Research Council of Canada , Ottawa...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... aluminum atom reaction, (that is, by reducing environmental embrittlement). The mechanical properties of the chromium-modified Fe 3 Al alloys can be further improved by thermomechanical treatment and alloy additions of molybdenum and niobium. Some of these alloys show a tensile ductility of more than 15...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... 400 58 496 72 Niobium 4 310 45 324 47 Hydrogen 0.1 241 35 (b) … … Silicon 1 448 65 … … (a) Annealed (beta transus: 93 °C, or 200 °F), furnace cooled to 482 °C (900 °F), air cooled, heat treated (beta transus: 38 °C, or 100 °F), ½ h water quenched 538 °C (1000 °F), 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
...; composition is variable; appears as globular, irregularly shaped particles that are gray to lavender; “M” elements can be titanium, tantalum, niobium, hafnium, thorium, or zirconium. M 23 C 6 fcc a 0 = 1.050–1.070 (varies with composition) Cr 23 C 6 (Cr, Fe, W, Mo) 23 C 6 Form of precipitation is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steels but additionally have small quantities of niobium, titanium, and/or vanadium to form fine strengthening precipitates. Figure 6.1 shows the microstructure of CP 800, which contains 42% ferrite, 40% bainite, 13% martensite, and 5% retained austenite. The phase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... improve this performance. Not only are the steels in exhaust systems almost exclusively ferritic, they are also stabilized by titanium or niobium. This prevents sensitization and makes all the chromium content useful as alloy. Titanium stabilization greatly improves corrosion resistance by removing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
..., and niobium. Fig. 2.1 Corrosion rates of iron-chromium alloys in intermittent water spray, at room temperature. Source: Ref 1 To a large extent, compositions of powder metallurgy (PM) stainless steels have been derived from some of the popular grades of wrought stainless steels. As a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Niobium 0–5 0–4 Tantalum 0–12 0–9 Rhenium 0–6 0–2 Table 1(b) Role of alloying elements in superalloys Effect (a) Iron-base Cobalt-base Nickel-base Solid-solution strengtheners Cr, Mo Nb, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Ta Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, W, Ta, Re fcc matrix stabilizers C, W, Ni...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... resistance in nonaqueous solutions. Few stainless steels contain more than 30 wt% Cr or less than 50 wt% Fe. Other important alloying elements include nickel, molybdenum, copper, titanium, aluminum, silicon, niobium, nitrogen, sulfur, and selenium. Most stainless steels have carbon present in amounts ranging...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion resistance over conventional plain carbon steels and form the basis for development of various types of stainless steels. Addition of elements from the refractory metals group, namely chromium, tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, niobium, tantalum, and zirconium, increases the creep strength of...