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nickel-chromium white iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... between resistance to abrasion and the toughness needed to withstand repeated impact. All high-alloy white irons contain chromium to prevent formation of graphite on solidification and to ensure the stability of the carbide phase. Most also contain nickel, molybdenum, copper, or combinations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... phase, while a low graphitization potential will result in irons with iron carbide. In terms of composition, the tendency to form white iron is enhanced by the addition of carbide formers such as chromium to the melt, while the formation of graphite is enhanced by the addition of graphitizers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... ranges, distinguishing features, advantages, limitations, and applications. cast iron cooling rate graphite formation cementite formation silicon aluminum nickel cobalt copper sulfur vanadium chromium tin molybdenum manganese microstructure white cast iron gray cast iron ductile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... alloying elements are added to iron for the purpose of attaining certain specific properties and characteristics. These elements include, but are not limited to, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, columbium (niobium), copper, aluminum, titanium, tungsten, and cobalt...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... The chemical composition of malleable iron generally conforms to the ranges given in Table 1 . Small amounts of chromium (0.01 to 0.03%), boron (0.0020%), copper (~1.0%), nickel (0.5 to 0.8%), and molybdenum (0.35 to 0.5%) are also sometimes present. Table 2 summarizes the effects of various elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... iron (a property taken advantage of in balancing the wings of jet fighter planes—being very heavy, a small amount of the metal does the job). Mushet had used 9% tungsten in his composition. Taylor and White doubled the tungsten, increased the chromium content, and used a higher hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... are alloy white iron, some are hard steel, and some are chromium plated) for lubricated reciprocating sliding systems. Cast irons are not widely used for plain bearings involving high speed (over 10,000 rpm). This is the forte of rolling elements, but cast irons are often used as the rotating member...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... Abstract This chapter covers mechanical properties, microstructures, chemical compositions, manufacturing processes, and engineering of gating practices for several applications of gray, white, and alloyed cast irons. It begins with a description of material standards, followed by a section...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
...) precipitating simultaneously in the form of alternating platelets ( Fig. 7.2 ). This microstructure is called pearlite. Fig. 7.2 Microstructure of pearlite. Note the alternating platelets of ferrite (white) and iron carbide (dark). Source: Ref 7.2 When a steel that contains less than...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... they are added, and how they affect various properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. It explains how silicon, chromium, and nickel, in particular, improve high-temperature, corrosion, and wear performance. annealing corrosion resistance gray iron hardenability normalizing stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... 0.30% C was necessary to make hardening possible in steel, and that manganese was essential to “neutralize the evil effects of sulphur and oxygen.” The detrimental effect of phosphorus was also noted, as was the opinion that only tungsten, chromium, manganese, and nickel could be used to make useful...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... chromium or molybdenum—the minimum section thickness becomes extremely critical. When section thicknesses are thin, there is a danger of white iron forming ( Fig. 2b ). This constituent is nearly impossible to machine; subsequent annealing is required to decompose the white iron into its constituents...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sch6.t68200253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-354-6
... compounds ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ) Abrasive Wear rate decreases with increasing hardness (i.e., single phase materials or matrix of two phase materials) and increasing volume percent of a hard second phase (i.e., carbides in high chromium white iron). The reduction in Abrasive Wear rate is limited...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... and by alloying with such elements as boron, chromium, and manganese. The abrasion and wear resistance of steel is increased by additions of such elements as chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and tungsten. Cast iron engine parts have long been made more wear resistant by alloying with silicon. Silicon additions also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (Sm) 7.9–21 4.4–12 Pure Erbium (Er) 13–16 7.0–9.0 Nickel chromium silicon gray cast iron 14 7.8 Tungsten alloys 14–15 7.7–8.4 Beryllium alloys 12–18 6.7–10 Manganese alloy steel 10–20 5.6–11 Iron alloys 9.7–19 5.4–11 Proprietary alloy steel 15 8.5 White cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hss.t52790185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-356-0
...., American Society for Metals, 1972, p 135 Duplex Stainless Steel In 1927, Bain and Griffiths at U.S. Steel prepared phase diagrams of the iron-chromium-nickel system and described austenite-ferrite alloys with 23 to 30% chromium and 1.2 to 9.7% nickel, but no information on properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... above room temperature. In binary iron-nickel alloys, approximately 30 wt% Ni is required to completely stabilize austenite, partly because close to room temperature the diffusion of iron and nickel is too sluggish to form a mixture of ferrite and austenite. However, if chromium is also present...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... of the alloying elements chromium, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, titanium, niobium, tungsten, vanadium, cobalt, or boron, depending on the end use. There are approximately 2500 different grades of steel and hence a systematic classification is a must for understanding them better. Steels can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... in a stainless steel containing 11.9% Ni. Source: Ref 6.10 as published in Ref 6.4 Iron-base alloys often consist of carbon with some other elements. Both chromium and nickel are substitutional alloying elements, while carbon is interstitially dissolved and has a very high diffusion rate. The other...