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nickel-chromium white iron

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... Typical effects of alloying elements on depth of chill Carbon Silicon Manganese and Sulfur Phosphorus Chromium Nickel Copper Molybdenum Vanadium Effects of Inoculants ASTM specification A 532 covers the composition and hardness of white iron grades used for abrasion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... irons, which can also be classified as either white or graphitic irons ( Fig. 10.27 ). In gray and ductile irons, small amounts of alloying elements such as chromium, molybdenum, or nickel are used primarily to achieve high strength or to ensure the attainment of a specified minimum strength in heavy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... subclasses: The easiest way to classify steels is by their chemical composition. Various alloying elements are added to iron for the purpose of attaining certain specific properties and characteristics. These elements include, but are not limited to, carbon, manganese, silicon, nickel, chromium...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... their compositional ranges, distinguishing features, advantages, limitations, and applications. cast iron cooling rate graphite formation cementite formation silicon aluminum nickel cobalt copper sulfur vanadium chromium tin molybdenum manganese microstructure white cast iron gray cast iron...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., currently called ferrite , that cannot be hardened by quenching Chromium steels with sufficient alloying of nickel that causes the iron atoms to arrange themselves into a very ductile crystalline phase, currently called austenite Later in 1908, Philipp Monnartz, under the direction of W...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.9781627082976
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... . Small amounts of chromium (0.01 to 0.03%), boron (0.0020%), copper (~1.0%), nickel (0.5 to 0.8%), and molybdenum (0.35 to 0.5%) are also sometimes present. Table 2 summarizes the effects of various elements on the microstructural characteristics of malleable iron. Typical compositions for malleable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... versus hard metal (some piston rings are alloy white iron, some are hard steel, and some are chromium plated) for lubricated reciprocating sliding systems. Cast irons are not widely used for plain bearings involving high speed (over 10,000 rpm). This is the forte of rolling elements, but cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... the transformation to pearlite, because they must diffuse to either the growing cementite or ferrite platelets. Neither nickel nor silicon form carbides in steel and, therefore, segregate to the ferrite. Manganese, chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten are carbide formers, so they segregate to the cementite. In both...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
...%, and phosphorus is usually within the range of 0.02 to 0.90%. Alloying elements such as nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, tin, and copper—singly or in combination—may be added to develop specific properties, much the same as for steels. The ductility of gray irons in the as-cast condition is very low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
.... Source: Ref 6.10 as published in Ref 6.4 Iron-base alloys often consist of carbon with some other elements. Both chromium and nickel are substitutional alloying elements, while carbon is interstitially dissolved and has a very high diffusion rate. The other substitutional alloying elements...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... they are added, and how they affect various properties, behaviors, and processing characteristics. It explains how silicon, chromium, and nickel, in particular, improve high-temperature, corrosion, and wear performance. annealing corrosion resistance gray iron hardenability normalizing stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... difference of iron sulfide in Fig. 3.41 . Unetched. 1000× Fig. 3.43 Microstructure of an AISI/SAE 316 stainless steel showing sensitization. Note the chromium carbides at the austenite grain boundaries. The steel was exposed to 675 °C (1250 °F) for 12 days. HCl/HNO 3 /H 2 O etch. 1000× Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
... IV Nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys As a general rule, overall aluminum diffusion is slowed as the nickel, chromium, and cobalt contents increase. Thus, higher temperatures and longer processing times are required to produce greater aluminum diffusion thicknesses as the base material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (Sm) 7.9–21 4.4–12 Pure Erbium (Er) 13–16 7.0–9.0 Nickel chromium silicon gray cast iron 14 7.8 Tungsten alloys 14–15 7.7–8.4 Beryllium alloys 12–18 6.7–10 Manganese alloy steel 10–20 5.6–11 Iron alloys 9.7–19 5.4–11 Proprietary alloy steel 15 8.5 White cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... metal that produces a fully austenitic deposit, and the second was to solution anneal at 1065 °C (1950 °F) after welding to dissolve most of the ferrite. It would also help to select stainless steel base metal by composition (e.g., high nickel, low chromium content) to minimize the production of ferrite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... gradual etching can be obtained with less concentrated solutions (10–20%) Suitable for etching steels containing chromium and nickel Mixed acids in ethyl alcohol 2.5 g FeCl 3 , 5 g picric acid, 2 mL HCl, 90 mL ethyl alcohol Etching time, 15 s for austenitic cast irons to 1 h or more for high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.9781627083232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Hot Work Steels Low-alloy special-purpose steels, also called group L steels, contain small amounts of chromium, vanadium, nickel, and molybdenum. At one time, seven steels were listed in this group, but because of falling demand, only types L2 and L6 remain. Type L2 is available in several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... iron) Unalloyed Gray, Ductile, Malleable, and White Cast Irons Unalloyed gray, ductile, malleable, and white cast irons represent the largest category. All of these materials have carbon and silicon contents of 3% or less and no deliberate additions of nickel, chromium, copper, or molybdenum...