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neutralizers

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... chemical neutrality, biological neutrality, and cleanliness. A vast majority of stainless steel applications in commercial and residential equipment are also discussed. stainless steel commercial equipment residential equipment STAINLESS STEEL HAS BECOME the essential material for...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... stress concentration. (b) Surface stress concentrations. (c) Transverse hole stress concentration A cylindrical shaft under pure torsional loading (twisting) has stresses that are maximum at the surface and zero at the center or neutral axis of the shaft, as shown in Fig. 2(a) . Pure torsion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... water treatment processes within a refinery, such as in cooling water and steam generation systems. Table 1 Typical applications for refinery corrosion inhibitors Unit Process stream Filming inhibitor Neutralizer Crude distillation Crude tower overhead X X Vacuum tower overhead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... classical SCC) and near-neutral-pH SCC (also referred to as low-pH SCC). A characteristic of both forms of SCC is the development of colonies of longitudinal surface cracks in the body of the pipe that link up to form long, shallow flaws. In some cases, growth and interlinking of the stress-corrosion cracks...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... immersion in neutral 3.5% sodium chloride solution. NACE Standard Test TM-01-77-86: Testing materials for resistance to sulfide stress cracking at ambient temperatures. ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 15156: Sulfide stress-corrosion cracking resistant metallic materials for oil field equipment. ASTM G47...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... complex calcareous minerals. The consumption of reagents would be unacceptable. If the flotation is performed in neutral-to-basic pulps, collectors such as fatty acids will also tend to collect fluorites, scheelites, and apatites. These problems make concentration of beryllium-containing ores rather...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... is called a neutral gas, and, in this example, the 0.068% CO 2 value is the neutral CO 2 composition for a 1095 steel at 1000 °C (1830 °F). Figure 7.7 shows that the neutral CO 2 composition increases as the carbon content of the steel decreases, going from 0.068% C for a 0.95% C steel (1095) to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... stabilizes the alpha phase to higher temperatures (alpha stabilizers) or the beta phase to lower temperatures (beta stabilizers). One additional group, neutral additives, has only a minor influence on stabilization of these phases. The addition of alloying elements results in three classes of terminal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... possibilities unique to PM, such as certain kinds of surface modification ( Chapter 6 ) or liquid-phase sintering ( Chapter 5, “Sintering and Corrosion Resistance” ), further extends the uses of sintered stainless steels. In neutral chloride exposure testing, optimally sintered tin-copper surface-modified...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... neutral saline environments, are usually below those of the corresponding wrought stainless steels. With the current knowledge, however, many new applications for sintered stainless steels appear possible, particularly when some of the other advantages of powder metallurgy (PM) processing ( Chapter 1...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... 50 cc of water and gently warming until the amine has melted. This must be neutralized by adding HCl drop by drop until litmus paper indicates it is neutral. Next add 300 cc of warm water and combine with the precipitate, then thoroughly mix in a blender. Finally, obtain a small piece of silicon...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... may exist in highly sensitized metallurgical conditions. For example, alloys susceptible to SCC in ambient neutral saltwater in smooth or notched samples include step-cooled Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V and the Ti-8Mn and Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al alloys. Highly stressed category 1 tests specimens may also be applicable for...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
..., zinc is anodic to aluminum and corrodes preferentially, giving protection to aluminum. Magnesium is similarly protective, although in severe marine environments it causes cathodic corrosion of aluminum because of an alkaline condition produced on the aluminum surface. Cadmium is neutral to aluminum and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., sodium, and magnesium (mainly their bicarbonates) and the neutral salts of these elements such as chlorides and sulfates are found as soluble impurities in water. Mineral salts found in natural water include: These minerals, when present in water, dissociate into their ionic form (Na + , Ca +2 , Mg...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... precracked specimens. Moreover, SCC in neutral chloride solutions requires anodic polarization. Table 11.2 Environments known to induce stress-corrosion cracking in zirconium and its alloys Environment Temperature, °C (°F) (a) Test methods (b) Cracking mode (c) Ref Aqueous solutions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... of a metal, M, in a simple acid (pH < 7) and in a neutral or alkaline (pH ≥ 7) environment in both deaerated and aerated conditions. For the case of an aerated alkaline environment, list the reasonably possible electrochemical, chemical, and physical (diffusion, electron conduction) steps in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... chemically milled (pickled) to improve surface finish. At Brush Wellman, most of the pickling is done in a nitric acid or sulfuric acid-peroxide bath. The spent acid liquor is neutralized with a caustic solution to precipitate the copper oxide and copper hydroxide. Table 27.2 Analysis of typical by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... per original equipment manufacturer guidelines. The basic steps in cleaning a boiler for scale removal consist of mechanical cleaning, water flushing, alkaline treatment, solvent cleaning, and neutralization and passivation. Loosely adherent scales and debris are normally removed by mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... involved. The horizontal axis identifies the pH of the solution. The solutions range from acid conditions at the left (pH 0 to 7) to alkaline solutions at the right (pH 7 to 14). In the middle of the diagram are relatively neutral solutions (pH 5 to 9). The vertical axis is used to plot the oxidizing power...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... similar to aqueous corrosion. More complete discussion on the mechanisms of molten salt corrosion can be found in Ref 3 to 5 . Chloride salts are widely used in the heat treating industry for annealing and normalizing of steels. These salts are commonly referred to as neutral salt baths. The most...