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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on oil and natural gas pipelines, as well as describes procedures for prevention, mitigation, detection, assessment, and repair. The forms of external corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... Abstract This chapter describes the properties and attributes of various classes of metalworking lubricants, including mineral oils; natural oils, fats, derivatives, and soaps; synthetic fluids (olefins, esters, polyglycols, ionic liquids); compounded lubricants (oils, greases, fats); aqueous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses various factors pertinent to the prevention of corrosion in alloys for petroleum applications and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... pulled crude oil from the ground in large quantities. Up to that time, there were many machines in use that needed lubrication to work, but lubricants from natural sources such as whales and plants carried the load. Oil, as it comes from the ground, is called mineral oil, probably because it contains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... for their classification. Functionally, two main categories of boilers are utility boilers and industrial/commercial/institutional (ICI) boilers. Utility boilers are used in thermal power plants to produce steam at a constant rate. Utility boilers are very large in size and work with pulverized coal, fuel oil, or natural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Cleaning Different types of quenchants have different types of cleaning requirements before tempering. Oil quenchants need to be removed before tempering. Quench oils burn in the tempering furnaces, and if they are not removed, the parts in a tempering retort can actually glue together. The oil can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... are discussed. internal corrosion corrosion prediction natural gas pipelines real-time monitoring multiphase pipelines INTERNAL CORROSION IN PIPELINES is a significant problem in oil and gas transmission systems. Oil or mixed-phase transmission systems, due to the presence of an inhibiting oil...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter describes various units and process streams that are often susceptible corrosion inhibitors in crude oil refineries, discusses the types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, and provides some information on corrosion monitoring techniques used at refineries...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter provides a detailed account of corrosion inhibitors for oil and gas production. It begins by discussing some of the demands of competitive industry on inhibitor formulations. It then describes the varying characteristics of oil wells, gas wells, water injection systems...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... of wheel bearings. Whale oils were used for all sorts of tribological applications as were many naturally occurring oils like rapeseed, castor oils, even olive oil. About the year 1850, mineral oil started to be extracted from the Earth in large quantities, and it started to become the universal friction...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion in boiler tubes are: (i) waterwall corrosion, (ii) fuel ash corrosion such as corrosion due to coal ash and oil ash, (iii) hot corrosion, (iv) acid dew point corrosion, (v) stress corrosion cracking, and (vi) polythionic acid corrosion ( Ref 6.1 , 6.28 ). Waterwall Corrosion or Reduced...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
....” The process used for making caprolactam before the disaster occurred was oxidation of cyclohexane, which is a highly inflammable and very hazardous material to handle. When copious amounts of hot cyclohexane escaped to the atmosphere due to the bursting of a pipe, spontaneous explosion was but natural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... and product quality. 1.1.8 Summary Natural lubricants (mostly fats and fatty oils), or their modifications obtained through design or accident, provided satisfactory lubricants for most purposes until recent times. On prolonged standing or in continued use, many fatty substances develop free fatty...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... of additives to the water, such as salt and polymers. Oil quenches produce virtually no vapor pocket. The initial heat extraction of oil quenches is fast, but the quenching speed slows substantially in the other stages of quenching. Boiling Stage The boiling stage is the second stage of cooling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... are prone to slurry erosion. However, from the practical standpoint, slurries that may need erosion-control considerations are chemical manufacturing slurries, mining slurries, downhole slurries used in oil drilling, dredging slurries, and the like. When such slurries are studied in the lab, it is common...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... the transfer of heat by mixing one parcel of fluid (fluid refers to either liquid or gas) with another. The motion of the fluid may be entirely the result of density differences resulting from temperature difference, as in natural convection, or it may be produced by mechanical means, as in power convection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... or less unique to oil and gas production. One factor is the general absence of oxygen in process fluids. The dominant naturally occurring corrosives are CO 2 and H 2 S. However, in wells with high H 2 S concentrations, elemental sulfur—a relatively strong oxidizing agent—can also be present. Water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
...>3.0.CO;2-0 5. Cao J. and Chen L. , Effect of Thermal Cycling on Carbon Fiber-Reinforced PPS Composites , Polym. Compos. , Vol 26 , 2005 , p 713 – 716 10.1002/pc.20148 6. Williams G.I. and Wool R.P. , Composites from Natural Fibers and Soy Oil Resins , Appl...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... chamber with an atmosphere enriched with gaseous compound of carbon and nitrogen. Many types of gas are used. Common practice is to use an endothermic gas, such as natural gas, as a carrier for the ammonia and hydrocarbons. The process primarily imparts a hard, wear-resistant case. A carbonitrided case...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... include inspection for water leaks from hose connections and signs of discoloration on copper bus, tube connections in oscillator sets, and any signs of oil leaks from capacitors. The studs and taps on any heat station component, such as capacitors or transformers, need to have special attention paid...