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natural gas pipelines

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the most common causes and contributing factors for external corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking on oil and natural gas pipelines, as well as describes procedures for prevention, mitigation, detection, assessment, and repair. The forms of external corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter examines methods of internal corrosion prediction for multiphase pipelines and details methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for natural gas pipelines. Further, real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations...
Image
Published: 01 August 2013
Fig. 3.14 A natural gas pipeline that failed during field testing. Source: Ref 3.5 . More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... nitrate solution concentration. Stress-corrosion cracking of natural gas pipelines has been linked to environments consisting of carbonate/bicarbonate solutions in the buried soil environment. The development of the corrosive environment on the OD surfaces of piping has been associated with slightly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
..., they frequently are used in equipment for applications that involve low temperatures. In the period 1948 to 1951, there were many fractures of natural gas pipelines. Most occurred during testing, and most started at welding defects but propagated through sound metal. One of the longest cracks was 975 m (3200...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
..., and relocation and also to provide procedures to assess risk of brittle fracture ( Ref 3 ). 8.5 Safety Regulations for Transmission Pipelines Failures of Oil Transmission Pipelines A pipeline for gasoline, in Minnesota, constructed in 1957 with electric resistance welded (ERW) pipes, burst on July 8...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... in higher resistivity soil. Accelerated corrosion occurs on the foreign line at the point of current discharge. The location of the discharge can be detected because the pipe-to-soil potential is very low at that point. Likewise in an oil or gas field, where the flow-line system or the well casings from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... with external SCC of underground natural gas and liquid petroleum pipelines. The first recognized carbonate-related SCC failure of an underground pipeline occurred in 1965 in Natchitoches, La. ( Ref 2.122 ). A 609.6 mm (24 in.) diameter natural gas pipeline ruptured, resulting in 17 fatalities. The SCC...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... in seawater. It is common practice to protect steel ship hulls by attaching zinc anodes to the steel structure. Zinc “bracelet” anodes are installed on pipelines immersed in seawater to provide sacrificial cathodic protection to the outer surfaces of the steel pipe ( Fig. 11 ). Offshore structures for gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... concentrates on those aspects of corrosion that tend to be unique to corrosion as encountered in applications involving oil and gas exploration and production, namely extracting oil and gas from underground reservoirs and sending these products through a gathering system of pipelines to processing facilities...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... systems; oil and gas handling systems, particularly in those environments soured by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), from produced sulfides Underground pipeline industry Water-saturated clay-type soils of near-neutral pH with decaying organic matter and a source of SRB Water treatment industry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... protection was first suggested by Sir Humphrey Davy in the 1820s as a means of controlling corrosion on British naval ships ( Ref 1 ). It became common in the 1930s on the Gulf Coast of the United States, where it was used to control the corrosion of pipelines carrying high-pressure natural gas and petroleum...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... inhibitors oil and gas production oil wells gas wells water injection systems oil and gas pipelines bacteria-induced corrosion CORROSION INHIBITORS historically used in the oil field can be grouped into several common types or mechanistic classes: passivating, vapor phase, cathodic, anodic, film...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060369
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
..., there is an electrochemical reaction—over the entire surface of each electrode—that involves an equal balance of both oxidation and reduction reactions (see reaction formulas in the figure). In both cases, the corrosion of iron and zinc involves the liberation of hydrogen gas from the acid environments. The two corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Crude distillation Crude tower overhead X X Vacuum tower overhead X X Steam-jet vacuum system X … Fluid catalytic cracking, coker Fractionator overhead X … Compressed wet gas X … Absorber lean oil X … Debutanizer overhead X … Depropanizer overhead X...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... slurry than calcium carbonate. Fig. 4.8 Slurry erosion in a pipeline elbow In summary, slurry erosion is a significant concern in many industrial, construction, and infrastructure applications. Fracking to produce natural gas involves pumping huge quantities of sand slurries into rock...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... of the material and its properties. The environment consists of the entire surrounding in contact with the material. The primary factors to describe the environment are the following: (a) physical state—gas, liquid, or solid; (b) chemical composition—constituents and concentrations; and (c) temperature. Other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses various factors pertinent to the prevention of corrosion in alloys for petroleum applications and reviews the selection of stainless steels for petroleum applications, including oil country tubular goods, line pipe, offshore platforms, liquefied natural gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Fused caustic soda Hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluorosilicic acid Nickel Fused caustic soda Carbon and alloy steels NaOH solutions NaOH-Na 2 SiO 2 solutions Calcium, ammonium, and sodium nitride solutions Mixed acids (H 2 SO 4 -HNO 3 ) HCN solutions Acidic H 2 S solutions Moist H 2 S gas Seawater...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... series of bacteria is involved in metabolizing nitrogen compounds. As a group, they can reduce nitrates (NO −3 ) (often used as corrosion inhibitors) to nitrogen (N 2 ) gas. Others can convert nitrates to nitrite, or vice versa, or they can break it down to form ammonia (NH 3 ). Still other series...