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natural aging casting alloys

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Abstract This data set presents aging response curves for a wide range of aluminum casting alloys. The aging response curves are of two types: room-temperature, or "natural," curves and artificial, or "high-temperature," curves. The curves in each group are presented in the numeric sequence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... the properties of cast aluminum products. Hardening is defined as changes in metallurgical structure resulting in increased resistance to deformation. Most aluminum alloys age harden to some extent naturally after quenching; that is, properties change as a function of time at room temperature solely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... naturally (spontaneously) changes at room temperature over a duration of months or even years after solution heat treatment. The designation is specific only when the period of natural aging is indicated (for example, W ½ h). T, Solution Heat Treated This applies to alloys whose strength is stable...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... This chapter examines the metallurgy, composition, processing, and mechanical properties of aluminum and its alloys, both cast and wrought forms. It also covers heat treating and basic temper designations, including annealed, work hardened, solution heat treated, and solution heated treated and aged...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
.... These alloys are sometimes artificially aged to provide increased strength and hardness in wrought or cast products. Other alloys with slow precipitation reactions at room temperature are always artificially aged. Natural Aging The wrought heat treatable 2 xxx alloys generally contain magnesium...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Jordan 5000–3000 B.C. Chalcolithic period: melting of copper; experimentation with smelting Near East 3000–1500 B.C. Bronze Age: arsenical copper and tin bronze alloys Near East 3000–2500 B.C. Lost-wax casting of small objects Near East 2500 B.C. Granulation of gold and silver...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... temperature (called natural aging) occurs very slowly in most alloys. Thus, aging often is done at moderately high temperature for many precipitation-hardening (PH) alloys. Aluminum Alloys The modern discovery of precipitation hardening was by German research metallurgist Alfred Wilm in 1906...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... are designated with an “O”; those in the solution-treated condition that have not attained a stable condition are designated with a “W”; and those that have been hardened by cold work are designated with an “H.” If the alloy has been solution treated and then aged, either by natural or artificial aging...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ps.t6244000x
EISBN: 978-1-62708-352-2
... has been found in King Tutankhamun's tomb (1350 B.C .), although there is some debate among scholars about the deliberateness of the metallurgy of this joint. Solders comprising alloys of lead and tin were almost certainly used during the Iron Age [ Tylecote 1962 ]. By the Roman Imperial period...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060333
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... performance. Alloy 2024 is normally used in the solution-treated, cold worked, and naturally aged condition (T3 temper). Cold working is achieved at the mill by roller or stretcher rolling that helps to produce flatness along with 1 to 4% strains. It has a moderate yield strength (448 MPa, or 65 ksi) but good...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... coatings. The processing steps that can have relatively significant impact on corrosion resistance are homogenization, rolling, extrusion, quenching, aging, and annealing. chemical composition corrosion resistance aluminum aluminum alloys claddings anodizing conversion coatings homogenization...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
..., but the yield strength is increased along with some reduction in ductility. However, the ductility decrease still leaves enough ductility for most casting applications. The most commonly used precipitation-hardening treatments for cast magnesium alloys are solution treating and naturally aging (T4), naturally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... digits Strain-hardened only H2, plus one or more digits Strain-hardened and then partially annealed H3, plus one or more digits Strain-hardened and then stabilized Subdivisions of T T1 Cooled and naturally aged T2 Annealed (cast products only) T3 Solution heat treated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... element in dental amalgams, cast irons, fusible alloys, titanium alloy, and zirconium alloys. Tin is also an important alloying element in lead-base battery grid alloys. The use of ternary lead-calcium-tin alloys containing up to 1.3% Sn has substantially reduced gassing, and thus batteries with grids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., 38 mm (1.5 in.) and thicker. 2<italic>xxx</italic> Alloys Thick-section products of 2 xxx alloys in the naturally aged T3 and T4 tempers have low ratings of resistance to SCC in the short-transverse direction. Ratings of such products in other directions are higher, as are ratings of thin...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... and corrosion resistance. Wrought alloys may be age hardenable or solution or carbide strengthened. True stress relieving of wrought material usually is confined to alloys that are not age hardenable. Wrought alloys are often more apt to be stress relieved than are cast alloys, because there are fewer cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... differentiation for each category is based on the primary mechanism of property development. Many alloys respond to thermal treatment based on phase solubilities. These treatments include solution heat treatment, quenching, and precipitation, or age, hardening. For either casting or wrought alloys, such alloys...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... in the presence of copper increase the corrosion rate. These alloys are invariably solution heat treated and are used in either the naturally aged or the precipitation heat treated temper. Development of these tempers using good heat treating practice can minimize electrochemical effects on corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... the γ′ distribution and to promote transitions in other phases, such as carbides. In some alloys, several intermediate and several lower-temperature aging treatments are used; in cast alloys used for airfoils, a coating cycle may precede the single aging treatment, or a coating cycle and a high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030074
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... difference in the chemical composition between the cast alloys ( Table 3 ) and their wrought versions ( Table 2 ) is in the higher amount of impurities, such as carbon and silicon, allowed in the cast alloys. Carbon is naturally present in the melt and cannot be removed without special treatment...