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multiple spot welding machines

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... construction of thin metal members. Fig. 3.1 Robot welding machines are operating in a work cell as part of an automated production line for automobiles. Multiple robots are often used to speed assembly, with each performing a different set of specific welds. Source: Ref 3.1 , p 287 3.1 Resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... 2 Wormhole porosity in a weld bead. Longitudinal cut. 20x Radiography is the most widely used nondestructive method for detecting subsurface gas porosity in weldments. The radiographic image of round porosity appears as round or oval spots with smooth edges, and elongated porosity appears...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... processes that employ a slag covering for shielding purposes. With other processes, the oxide present on the metal surface before welding can also become entrapped. Slag inclusions can be found near the surface and in the root of a weld ( Fig. 3a ), between weld beads in multiple-pass welds ( Fig. 3b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... of carelessness on the part of the machine operator. Less frequently, the fault may be the result of an improper design, such as the insufficient flange width of the bracket shown in Fig. 3 . Fig. 3 Schematic of the failure of spot welds to join a bracket to a baseplate assembly. The failure was caused...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480265
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... the greatest life for high production rates. To establish spot and seam welding schedules, welding current and time are adjusted on production welding machines to obtain specified nugget diameters and tension-shear strengths without excessive penetration, indentation, and sheet separation. Penetration...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
..., engine blocks (semi-permanent mold) and cylinder heads (core assemblies), machine tools, and a variety of furniture components. Over 90% of styled automotive wheels are produced by the low-pressure permanent mold process (LPPM). The process capability for casting thicknesses is very versatile...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... Abstract This chapter provides basic concepts and background for customer-related manufacturing processes applied to aluminum products including forming, joining and welding, surface treatments, and machinability. It reviews the selection criteria, key testing regimes, and original equipment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... if they are not oriented almost parallel with the radiation beam. Radiography is not effective at detecting incomplete sidewall fusion in metal-inert gas welds with a 30° chamfer angle, for example, unless the radiographic source is aligned with the angle, which requires multiple exposures. In eddy-current testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720345
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... line. The frequency of variation usually corresponds to weld-current variation. Increased use of ultrahigh frequency current for welding has minimized the occurrence of stitching. The nondestructive inspection of resistance welded tube can be performed continuously on a welding machine...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... on the surface and to allow the computer to establish a best fit plane through the points. Similarly, the center points of cast holes can best be found by probing multiple points around the circumference of the hole. Machined features can generally be measured with fewer probe contacts. When measuring complex...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... on until solidification of the melt is complete. Spot welding is widely employed in building automotive bodies using welding robots. Seam welding, a continuous stream of spot welds, is used for making beams and box sections. High-Energy Beam Welding Highly concentrated beams of electrons impinge...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
..., the weld fusion zone in titanium alloys is characterized by coarse, columnar prior-beta grains that originated during weld solidification. The size and morphology of these grains depend on the nature of the heat flow that occurs during weld solidification. Fig. 9.1 Columnar beta grains in a spot...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
...) and machining (using computer numerical controlled, CNC, and electrical discharge machining, EDM processes. Now the market is moving toward computer aided industrial design (CAID) and computer aided industrial machining (CAIM) to produce reproducible dies. With the use of CAD to CAM and CAIM, many extrusion die...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230401
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...-groove joint commonly used in gas metal arc welding of beryllium plate and tube. Source: Weiss 1983 23.1.9 Weld Repair Defects, such as porosity, can be repaired by machining out the defect, preheating to 100 °C (212 °F), and rewelding. If the pass is stopped, as may occur in a multiple-pass...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... ends moving the original, contaminated end surfaces into the flash and forming a strong bond between virgin surfaces in the welding region. To obtain a good bond, multiple upsetting is performed two to six times. When welding aluminum-aluminum, aluminum-copper, and copper-copper, the weld strength...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.t53400233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
... or surface is sub- stantially harder than the core or interior. cast A solid reproduction of the outside surface of a part, detail, or model, normally made of plaster, used for spotting, machining, and so forth. center drill A combined drill and countersink. The countersink is 60° included angle, pri- marily...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smff.9781627083164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-316-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... concentration? Are the cracks associated with welding, for either fabrication or repair? Are the cracks associated in any way with evidence of corrosion, e.g., corrosion product, corrosion pitting? If cracking is observed during the inspection of raw materials or in materials in process of manufacture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... Abstract This chapter describes secondary processes employed in the production of powder-metal stainless steel parts, including various machining operations, welding, brazing, sinter bonding, resin impregnation, re-pressing and sizing, and surface finishing. It also discusses the factors...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
.... However, hard anodize coatings tend to spall and flake off as the aluminum temper ages during multiple thermal cycles. Due to its light weight and ease of machinability, aluminum is often used for what are called form block tools. As shown in Fig. 4.2 , a number of aluminum form block tools can...