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molten lead

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... hydroxide (NaOH) leads to metal oxide, sodium oxide, and hydrogen ( Ref 25 ). Nickel is most resistant to molten NaOH ( Ref 26 – 29 ), particularly low-carbon nickel such as Ni 201 ( Ref 30 ). Gregory et al. ( Ref 29 ) reported corrosion rates of several nickel-base alloys obtained from static tests at 400...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... Traces of aluminum in a tin-lead solder bath can seriously affect soldering qualities. More than 0.005% of the metal can cause grittiness, lack of adhesion, and surface oxidation of the solder alloy. A deterioration in surface brightness of a molten bath sometimes is an indication of the presence of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... behavior of alloys in molten aluminum, zinc, lead, lithium, sodium, magnesium, mercury, cadmium, tin, antimony, and bismuth. It also discusses the problem of liquid metal embrittlement, explaining how it is caused by low-melting-point metals during brazing, welding, and heat treating operations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... Abstract Brazing and soldering processes use a molten filler metal to wet the mating surfaces of a joint, with or without the aid of a fluxing agent, leading to the formation of a metallurgical bond between the filler and the respective components. This chapter discusses the characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610585
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... CATEGORIZING DEFECTS leading to failure vary among failure analysis practitioners, quality engineers, other engineers, and managers, as well as legal and insurance professionals. Grouping failure causes into a few fundamental categories is advantageous and informative because it defines which aspect of a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... baths. Source: Ref 12.26 Molten metals are an ideal liquid bath for rapid quenching because of the very high thermal conductivity of liquid metals and the lack of vapor blanket formation. Molten lead does not react with steel, and it melts at 327 °C (620 °F). It can be alloyed with bismuth...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of scale and how it can be removed via belt grinding, abrasive blasting, and molten salt descaling baths. It also discusses the role of acid pickling, barrel finishing, polishing, and buffing as well as the use of chemical conversion coatings and protective platings. barrel finishing chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... spectrum of materials to be extruded. This chapter focuses on the processes involved in the extrusion of semifinished products in various metals and their alloys, namely tin, lead, lead-base soft solders, tin-base soft solders, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, copper, titanium, zirconium, iron, nickel, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the melting and conversion of superalloys and the solidification challenges they present. Superalloys have high solute content which can lead to untreatable defects if they solidify too slowly. These defects, called freckles, are highly detrimental to fatigue...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... on the mechanical properties of 8640 steel. Grain sizes in the ultrafine range of ASTM No. 13 to 15 were achieved by a four-cycle process, where the steel was austenitized in a molten lead bath for approximately 10 s, cooled to room temperature, cold worked, and then cycled again. A series of similar...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract Aluminum has many outstanding properties, leading it to be used for a wide range of applications. It offers excellent strength-to-weight ratio, good corrosion and oxidation resistance, high electrical and thermal conductivity, exceptional formability, and relatively low cost. This...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... generalized manner. The chapter provides a discussion on the constitution of commercially pure iron, subsequently leading to discussion on the iron-carbon alloy system. The chapter also describes the effect of carbon on the constitution of iron and of the solubility of carbon in iron. It provides information...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the compositions, properties, and applications of nonferrous metals, including zirconium, hafnium, beryllium, lead, tin, gold, silver, and platinum group metals. It also addresses fusible alloys and provides melting temperatures for several compositions...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... major eutectic systems include the aluminum-silicon eutectic system and the lead-tin eutectic system. The chapter discusses the construction of eutectic phase diagrams from free energy curves. It also provides information on peritectic, monotectic, and solid-state reactions in alloy systems. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... can lead to defects and variations in strength. It also discusses the extrusion of aluminum matrix composites and explains how composite billets are made. aluminum matrix composites billets extrudability extrusion extrusion defects In Chapter 6 , the extrusion process of soft- and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... material selection, and discuss, where appropriate, the characteristic forms of corrosion that attack specific materials. The materials addressed in this chapter include carbon steels, weathering steels, and alloy steels; nickel, copper, aluminum, titanium, lead, magnesium, tin, zirconium, tantalum...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter begins by presenting a generic eutectic phase diagram and identifying critical points, lines, and features. It then describes the composition and properties of aluminum-silicon and lead-tin eutectic systems, the characteristics of eutectic morphologies, the solidification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses two damage mechanisms in which stress plays a major role. In the one case, stress causes cracks in the oxide scale on metals, leading to preferential corrosion attack. An example from industry of this type of failure is the circumferential cracking that occurs on...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... represents an entirely different concept compared with gaseous atmosphere furnaces. Heating parts in molten metal (usually molten lead) is an age-old practice. A pottype furnace containing molten lead provides an effective means of heating steel parts, but there are certain disadvantages: Molten lead...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...), which is the brittle failure of a metal that is coated with a film of liquid metal and subjected to tensile stresses. Many high-temperature alloys frequently cannot be used in contact with liquid (or molten) metals used in coating and in other industrial processes. Molten lead, however, can be...