1-20 of 316 Search Results for

molten iron

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
.... , and Burdin M.F. , Ed., American Foundrymen’s Society , 1992 Ductile cast iron, also known as nodular iron or spheroidal-graphite (SG) iron, is cast iron in which the graphite is present as tiny spheres (nodules) (see Fig. 1 ). In ductile iron, eutectic graphite separates from the molten iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... steps. However, it was not until the middle of the 19th century that a large-scale process emerged for making steel, when, in 1856, Bessemer patented a process in which hot air was blown through molten pig iron to reduce the carbon and silicon contents. In 1858, Siemens first successfully operated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...-carbon system the eutectic point occurs at a composition of 4.26% C and a temperature of 1148 °C. Eutectic solidification can begin at a composition of 2.08 % C, which is the point where the maximum solubility of carbon in austenite is achieved. If molten iron has more than 2.08 % C, then the melt does...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... American chimney or blast furnace Improved blast furnace designs enabled higher temperatures to be reached until the temperature exceeded the melting point of the iron. The molten iron dissolved carbon and other impurities, which was not the case in the production of sponge and wrought iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... on the method of melting, the composition and product form of the alloy being added, the amount of iron being alloyed (the entire charge or only portions of the charge), and the ladling practice in the specific foundry. In cupola melting, nickel, copper, chromium, and molybdenum are added to the molten...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
..., although they must also be controlled in steel and stainless steel castings. Because of their high carbon contents, oxide films do not form in cast irons. If the film is folded over on itself as a result of turbulent flow or “waterfalling” (when molten metal falls to a lower level in the casting during...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... microstructure steel STEEL IS MADE by dissolving carbon into iron. Pure iron melts at an extremely high temperature, 1540 °C (2800 °F), and at such temperatures, carbon readily dissolves into the molten iron, generating a liquid solution. When the liquid solution solidifies, it generates a solid solution...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... are the oxygen lances used in basic-oxygen steelmaking converters and water-cooled cupolas used in making various types of cast iron. The oxygen lances are essentially double-walled tubes that are inserted directly above the liquid metal in the converter. The oxygen blast into the molten metal causes extremely...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... melting and slag formation. The slag floats on top of the molten iron and absorbs many of the unwanted impurities. Fine ore is mixed with the coke and fluxes and heated in a sinter plant on a continuous moving belt on which the coke is ignited. The high temperatures generated fuse the ore particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... in his book A History of Metallurgy , “the development and introduction of the blast furnace in Europe is one of the most interesting subjects in the history of ferrous metallurgy,” ( Ref 1 ). The molten iron dissolved the carbon from the wood fuel until the carbon reached 3–4% of the iron. When...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... furnaces to a high temperature by the use of an air blast from skin bellows. Melting occurred as the iron absorbed carbon from the wood. Once completely molten, the resulting steel was uniform in carbon. This was the first truly homogeneous steel. The art of making steel existed in ancient and medieval...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... in the interest of mechanical quality and annealability, because decreasing carbon content reduces the fluidity of the molten iron, increases shrinkage during solidification, and reduces annealability. A limiting maximum carbon content is imposed by the requirement that the casting be white as-cast. The range...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080423
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Alloy Corrosion rate, mm/yr (mpy) Cast iron Complete dissolution in 408 h ARMCO iron 4.0 (157) 1020 steel 2.5 (100) 430SS 0.7 (27) 302SS 10.0 (393) 347SS 9.8 (387) Source: Ref 17 Results of corrosion tests in molten lithium at 705 to 815 °C (1300 to 1500 °F...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... mandrel is removed by chemical leaching. Rhenium is not attacked by molten copper, silver, tin, and zinc. It dissolves readily in molten iron and nickel. It is resistant to hydrochloric acid and shows good resistance to saltwater corrosion and the mechanical effects of erosion. At elevated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... or mottled iron to form on solidification. In hypereutectic irons (CE greater than approximately 4.3%), there is a tendency for kish graphite (proeutectic graphite that forms and floats free in the molten iron) to precipitate on solidification under normal cooling conditions. The strengths of cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of alloys in molten NaNO 3 -KNO 3 (equimolar volume) salt with an equilibrium nitrite concentration (about 6 to 12 wt%) at 675 °C (1250 °F) for 336 h. A constant purge of air in the melt was maintained during testing. Nickel-base alloys were generally much more resistant than iron-base alloys. Increasing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... techniques as briefly described in this chapter. Melting can be performed using several different processes. Traditional melting methods include (but are certainly not limited to) crucible furnace melting, electric arc furnace (EAF) melting, induction melting, and vacuum induction melting (VIM). Molten...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... from molten metal. Iron or steel dies had been used in casting print type in lead-base alloys in the 17th century. Iron molds were also used in colonial times to cast pewter. Intensive efforts to employ iron and steel molds in the casting of aluminum resulted in commercial “permanent mold...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... in an irregular fashion. Manganese is present in all steels to overcome problems with sulfur embrittlement. Sulfur is an impurity atom in steels that cannot be economically removed. It forms a compound with iron, iron sulfide (FeS), that is molten at the hot rolling temperatures of steel. The molten FeS wets...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... a rough surface or, in extreme cases, actually becoming intimately mixed with the sand in the mold. In iron castings, this is normally the result of the combination of metallostatic head (the pressure exerted on the molten iron at the bottom of the mold by the weight of the metal on top...