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molten carbonate fuel cells

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... of aluminum, magnesium, sodium, and other reactive metals; refining of refractory metals; and high-temperature batteries and fuel cells. Table 15.1 summarizes the general applications of molten salt technology in several industries ( Ref 1 ). General applications of molten salt technology in several...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... turbines. Other applications include fuel cells, photocatalytic and anti-microbial coatings, and biomaterials or biotechnology uses. These technologies are not sufficiently mature to meet industrial standards and customer needs. However, collaboration among researchers will provide understanding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... See also electrochemical cell. cementite. A hard, brittle compound of iron and carbon, known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. Characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. When it occurs as a phase in steel, the chemical composition will be altered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... is a spongelike carbon mass that is produced from coal by heating coal to expel the organic matter and gases. In a process called carbonization, blended coal is first heated in ovens to produce coke. The gas produced during carbonization is extracted and used for fuel elsewhere in the steelworks. Other...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.9781627084567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtpp.t59380235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-456-7
... in a molten salt containing cyanide to cause simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen at the surface and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient. Quench hardening completes the process. cycle annealing An annealing process employing a predetermined and closely controlled time-temperature cycle...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... are approximately $0.40/lb Cr, $0.60/lb Cr, and $4.00/lb Cr.) Excess carbon is simply consumed as fuel for the process. Similarly, scrap alloy to be used in the melt does not have to be degreased or otherwise specially prepared, because carbonaceous contamination is removed during the process. The elimination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060429
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the transfor- Bessemer process. A process for making steel mation range (complete austenitizing). When by blowing air through molten pig iron con- used without qualification, the term refers to tained in a refractory lined vessel so as to re- complete austenitizing. move by oxidation most of the carbon, sili...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the types, methods, and advantages of heat treating procedures, including annealing, normalizing, tempering, and case hardening. It describes the iron-carbon system, the formation of equilibrium and metastable phases, and the effect of alloy elements...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.9781627083041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... by electrolysis and is referred to as the Hall-Héroult process, named after the two engineers who independently invented it. That basic process involves an electrolyte substance called cryolite [2] that dissolves alumina at high temperatures in an electrochemical cell. A carbon anode delivers electricity...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... ® was developed. To obtain high toughness, it was vacuum refined to very low carbon plus nitrogen levels. It was followed by the more capable 29-4 ® . Later, this alloy was stabilized and became the still-popular AL 29-4C ® . (E-Brite now has a new life as a fuel cell material based on its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.9781627082617
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... reliable, strong, and fracture-resistant parts for airframes, engines, and ultimately, for missile bodies, fuel cells, and satellite components. However, the aluminum industry growth was not limited to these developments. The first commercial applications of aluminum were novelty items such as mirror...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... molten aluminum. In smaller furnaces, electricity or gas are used as heat sources. The term reverberatory furnace is a throwback to the World War II era, when the most common fuels for hearth aluminum melting were coal or coke. This necessitated locating the heat source or fire box at one end...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910497
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
..., the deteriorating effect under normal long-term service condi- tions. acid rain. Atmospheric precipitation with a pH below 5.6 to 5.7. Burning of fossil fuels for heat and power is the major factor in the generation of oxides of nitrogen and sulfur, which are converted into nitric and sulfuric acids washed down...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.9781627082501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.t68350231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7
.... A case-hardening process in which a ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature range in a molten salt con- taining cyanide to cause simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitro- gen at the surface and, by diffusion, create a concentration gradient. Quench hardening completes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.secwr.9781627083157
EISBN: 978-1-62708-315-7