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molecular solvent

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of solvent can cause the mechanical failure of elastomers in hostile environments ( Ref 24 ). While visual and physical tests are considered significant and continue to be used, instrumental and spectroscopic tests provide more information on changes in molecular microstructure as a result of exposure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
..., such as stearates, stearic acid, or magnesium stearate, as well as phosphates and sulfonates, to adjust viscosity, lubricate tooling, disperse particles, or induce binder wetting of the powder. In the case of binders deposited via ink jet printing, the binder contains solvents to lower the viscosity for easier...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... consists of a mixture of molecular weights. Fig. 7.11 Binder-extraction data at two temperatures for solvent-immersion extraction of paraffin wax. Source: Camargo et al. ( Ref 5 ) Fig. 7.12 Solvent-extraction data from Fig. 7.11 replotted using the linearized form suggested by Eq 7.3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Viscosity The traditional approach for determining only the molecular weight of a resin, but not the molecular weight distribution, involves dissolving the polymer in a suitable solvent. However, the more structurally complicated macromolecules require the use of hostile solvents, tedious sample...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... cure cycles, and higher pressures (such as 200 psig). Volatiles and voids are always potential problems when processing polyimides. Even the so-called addition-curing systems can exhibit volatile problems as the low molecular weight monomers are usually dissolved in solvents during manufacturing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... strength, and elongation. Plasticizers lower melt viscosity and processing temperature. Fundamentally, they function by broadening the molecular weight distribution and increasing the low-molecular-weight fraction of the total composition. Plasticizers are essentially nonvolatile solvents. 7.6 Effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... binder design. Accordingly, the starting point is the selection of an inexpensive filler, such as paraffin wax. Then, the stronger and higher-temperature backbone phase is selected to resist the solvent or heat cycle used to remove the filler. Higher-molecular-weight polymers prove difficult due...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article discusses the molecular mechanism, environmental criteria, and material optimization of environmental stress crazing (ESC) in glassy thermoplastics, polyethylenes, and nylons. In addition, it provides information on various tests used to determine relative susceptibility...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... polymer/solvent Osmometry, membrane Number-average molecular weight, M ¯ n M ¯ n = 10 3  to  10 6 Osmometry, vapor pressure M ¯ n M ¯ n = 300 to 30,000, interactions polymer/solvent...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
...-pressure constant-flow pumps. A resin sample is dissolved in solvent, injected into the chromatograph, and swept through a column packed with fine, solid particles via the mobile phase. The presence of each molecular fraction is sensed by one or more detection devices ( Fig. 2 , parts 5 and 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses the structural classifications, molecular configuration, degradation, properties, and uses of polymers. It describes thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, degree of polymerization, branching, cross-linking, and copolymers. It also discusses glass transition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... conditions, temperature, pressure, and the presence of solvents. Crazes will initiate in a plastic when a critical limit is reached in stress, strain, dilation, or distortion strain energy. Higher-molecular-weight plastics generally have greater resistance to crazing, while more crystalline plastics have...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780359
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... having distinct properties. Solution Viscosity The traditional approach for determining only the molecular weight of a resin, but not the molecular weight distribution, involves dissolving the polymer in a suitable solvent. However, the more structurally complicated macromolecules require the use...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... to form a polymer. These variations in structure within the molecule may involve stereoisomerism, branching, molecular weight and distribution, end groups and impurities, and copolymerization. Polymer size is quantified primarily by molecular weight (MW), molecular-weight distribution (MWD), and branching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... involve a decrease in the molecular weight by chain scission or the incorporation of a new chemical group onto the polymer chain. Chain scission may cause a reduction in mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness. In some cases, chain scission may be followed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article describes in more detail the fundamental building-block level, atomic, then expands to a discussion of molecular considerations, intermolecular structures, and finally supermolecular issues. An explanation of important thermal, mechanical, and physical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... (such as solubility, molecular weight, and functionalization), and cure cycle. It is well known that phase separation is viscosity or mobility dependent and; therefore, affected by slight advancement or staging of the thermosetting resin. As a result, the phase separation of the rubber may be incomplete, which can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... becomes rubbery. The T g is also a measure of the onset of long-range molecular movement in the plastic. Because the transition from glass to rubber is not a thermodynamic transition, but rather a manifestation of viscoelasticity, the exact value of the T g depends on the method used to measure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the properties and processing characteristics of glass, aramid, carbon, and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene fibers and related product forms, including woven fabrics, prepreg, and reinforced mats. It also includes a review of fiber terminology as well...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... of these materials are toxic and must be handled accordingly. The time that the sample spends in contact with the solvent depends on many factors, including the molecular weight of the polymer in the dispersed phase, the solubility parameter, the degree of phase separation, the concentration of thermosetting...