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mixed-potential theory

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... reactions, the mixed-potential theory, and the exchange currents. aqueous corrosion free energy electrochemical potential potential-pH diagram iron gold copper zinc aluminum titanium polarization anodic reactions cathodic reactions mixed-potential theory exchange currents ionic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... presents a simple model of a galvanically coupled electrode, in which the metal is represented as an array of anode and cathode reaction surfaces. The chapter goes on to develop the related theory of mixed electrodes, showing how it can be used to predict corrosion rates based on measured potentials and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter lays the groundwork for understanding electrode kinetics associated with corrosion. It presents a simple but useful theory relating kinetics to the polarization behavior of half-cell reactions. The theory is based on the observation that electrode potentials vary as a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract Hydrogen damage is a form of environmentally assisted failure that results most often from the combined action of hydrogen and residual or applied tensile stress. This chapter classifies the various forms of hydrogen damage, summarizes the various theories that seek to explain hydrogen...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... thermodynamic conditions and electrochemical nature of oxidation and providing information on transient oxidation. This is followed by a description of Wagner's theory for metal oxidation. The volatile nature of Cr 2 O 3 is then reviewed. The chapter further discusses the causes and preventive measures of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
... information on the theory of adhesion. The chapter then describes the considerations for designing adhesively bonded joints and for testing or characterizing adhesive materials. The following section covers the characteristics of the most important synthetic adhesive systems and five groups of adhesives...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the tools and techniques, as well as some of the underlying theory, that have proven useful for process modeling and simulation. It begins by presenting the framework of a thermoset cure model that accounts for kinetics, viscosity, heat transfer...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... historical development of SAM for integrated circuit package inspection, SAM theory, and analysis considerations. Case studies are presented to illustrate the practical applications of SAM. Other non-destructive imaging tools are briefly discussed, as well as SAM challenges and methods including spectral...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... (reducing) reactions. Figure 14.3 is a diagram of the mixed-potential theory ( Ref 14.1 , 14.2 ). Fig. 14.3 Mixed-potential behavior of an active metal and a passive metal in an acid solution Mixed-potential theory uses the relationship between potential and current density (i.e., corrosion...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030033
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter concentrates on the better-known and widely studied phenomenon of pitting corrosion of passive metals. The discussion focuses on different parameters that influence pitting corrosion, namely environment, metal composition, potential, temperature, surface condition, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... thinning rate of the chosen alloy can be determined through the mixed potential theory and polarization diagrams. In the case of stainless steels, the alloy chemistry is chosen such that the passive-active behavior favors corrosion in the passive regime. The corrosion rate of the various stainless steels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... coatings BOTH CATHODIC AND ANODIC PROTECTION METHODS involve modification of a metals potential. In these methods, the potential of the metal to be protected is shifted, either by the application of a direct current from a power supply or by galvanic action from the connection of dissimilar metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
... a computer). The earlier example is shown with a computer only for the sake of clarity. Draw curved lines, in different colors, radiating outward from the central image (i.e., the image depicting the problem). These curved, outward-radiating lines should show potential problem causes. The theory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.9781627082822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... chapter describes those conditions, focusing initially on the effects of alloying elements and temper on solution potential and how it compares to other metals. It then addresses the issue of intergranular corrosion and its role in SCC. It explains how factors such as stress loads, grain structure, and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... – 23 20. Pickering H.W. , A Critical Review of IR Drops and Electrode Potentials within Pits, Crevices and Cracks , Advances in Localized Corrosion NACE 9 , Isaacs H.S. , Bertocci U. , Kruger J. , and Smialowska S. , Ed., National Association of Corrosion Engineers...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... and anode areas are assumed to be equal. The overall mixed potential of the surface would be at a corrosion potential E corr , defined in Fig. 2 . Fig. 3 Corrosion rate and the effect of (a) Tafel slope and (b) exchange current density In effect, the corrosion current resulting from...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
..., the partial molar Gibbs energy of a substance is usually called its chemical potential. If 1 mol of pure A is dissolved in an amount of solution so large that the solution concentration remains virtually unchanged, the Gibbs energy change for the mole of A ( Δ G ¯ A ) is...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
.... “Control of External Corrosion on Underground or Submerged Metallic Piping Systems,” NACE RP0169, National Association of Corrosion Engineers 8. Ashworth V. , The Theory of Cathodic Protection and its Relation to the Electrochemical Theory of Corrosion, Chapter 1 , Cathodic Protection...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... limited to: Temperature Pressure Solute species Solute concentration and activity pH Electrochemical potential Solution viscosity Stirring or mixing Altering any of these parameters may alter the rate of the rate-controlling steps, either accelerating or reducing the rate...