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mixed convection

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
..., or a fluidized bed, conduction plays an important role because the hot medium is in direct contact with the work-metal surfaces. Convection involves the transfer of heat by mixing one parcel of fluid (fluid refers to either liquid or gas) with another. The motion of the fluid may be entirely the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... steam drum where steam is separated to be heated further in the convection section for higher temperatures prior to delivery to the turbine for electricity generation. Water at the bottom of the steam drum is then mixed with the replacement water (feedwater) and is returned to the bottom of the boiler...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... of steel in liquid media, the process may be split into the following three stages: (a) the vapor blanket stage, (b) the boiling stage, and (c) the convection stage. Figure 6.1 gives examples of the three stages of quenching. Fig. 6.1 Photo sequence of a hot steel rod being quenched in a 25...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfw.t52860007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-338-6
... simple low-tech practices for many years. These included manually loading mandrels, manually mixing resin and adding it to the resin bath, manually tying on the fibers to the mandrel to start winding, manually changing between different types of fibers in the same winding process, manually cutting the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... water, whereas on the shell side there are hot combustion gases. In watertube boilers, the fuel is combusted in a central chamber (furnace, bed, or grate) and the combustion gas transfers heat energy, through radiation and convection, to the water circulating through the tubes. The water tubes are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... cooling, as depicted schematically in Fig. 6.1 . As with thermoset composites, the main processing variables are time ( t ), temperature ( T ), and pressure ( P ). Heating can be accomplished with infrared heaters, convection ovens, heated platen presses, or autoclaves. Since time for chemical reactions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... essentially homogeneous. For successful hardening, the steel must be thoroughly austenitized. Anything less than complete austenitizing will result in mixed microstructures and poor mechanical properties. Under some conditions of insufficient austenitizing, cracking is likely to occur. When austenitizing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfub.t53740047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-308-9
... metal may penetrate the surface of the mold forming a rough surface, or in extreme cases, it may actually become intimately mixed with the sand in the mold. In iron castings, this is normally the result of the combination of metallostatic head (the pressure exerted on the molten iron at the bottom of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Okabayashi K. , Mechanical Properties of 0.4%C-Ni-Cr-Mo High Strength Steel Having a Mixed Structure of Martensite and Bainite , Metall. Trans. , A, Vol 14 , 1983 , p 485 – 492 10.1007/BF02644225 12.21. Sundaram S.M. and Mallik A.K. , Effect of Lower Bainite on Mechanical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.scm.t52870201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-314-0
... variables are known to affect convective heat transfer in an autoclave: (1) increasing the gas pressure, (2) increasing the gas velocity, and (3) increasing the gas flow turbulence all improve convective heat transfer. In one study, a standard production size autoclave was used that was 40 ft (12.2 m) in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
...., constant temperature) Ac 1 The critical temperature when some austenite begins to form during heating, with the “c” being derived from the French chauffant Ar 1 The temperature when all austenite has decomposed into ferrite or a ferrite-cementite mix during cooling, with the “r” being...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-density surface modifications to steels. Included are descriptions of plasma nitriding, plasma carburizing, ion implantation and mixing, physical vapor-deposition techniques, chemical vapor deposition, and transformation hardening and melting by laser and electron beams...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... homogeneous oxidation/reduction reactions of dissolved species. These reactions can have substantial effects on the corrosivity of the occluded environment, in particular with regard to the local pH. Mass transport by diffusion and convection generally tends to minimize differences between the occluded region...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... coil. There are mixed heats of material. Whenever possible in production, it is desirable to keep parts made from different heats of steel in the same production lot. The heats should be identified and kept separate. When the steel is purchased in smaller than heat quantities, there may be no...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
.... The steam from the steam drum after separating from water is then further heated in superheaters (typically two superheaters—primary and secondary or final superheaters) to higher temperature in the convection path before it is delivered to turbines for electricity generation. The combustion flue gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... Other more complicated equations of solute distribution have been developed, including the effects of diffusion in the solid and convection in the liquid ( Ref 9.40 , 9.41 ). Nevertheless, Eq 9.2 accurately demonstrates solute enrichment as solidification proceeds. The schematic portion of a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... surface as liquid quenchant contacts the metal surface and is vaporized. The liquid cooling stage begins when the temperature of the metal surface is reduced below the boiling point of the quenching liquid. Below this temperature, boiling stops, and cooling takes place by conduction and convection into...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... excellent flow, mixing, and packing attributes. It is fabricated by using centrifugal atomization of molten metal. The second powder is agglomerated, nanoscale titanium with poor packing and flow. It is fabricated by reacting titanium tetrachloride with hydrogen in a plasma. The small size and high...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Table 7.5 Powder production methods Step Inert gas atomization (a) Soluble gas process Rotating electrode process (b) Plasma rotating electrode process Centrifugal atomization with forced convective cooling (RSR) (c) Melting 1 VIM; ceramic crucible VIM; ceramic crucible VIM, VAR...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... homogenization happens in the solid and the liquid is fully homogeneous during the process (a reasonable approximation because liquids can move by convection) the Scheil model ( Ref 4 , 5 ) can predict the solute redistribution as depicted schematically in Fig. 8.14 . Fig. 8.14 Composition profile of a...