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mineral acids

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 5 (a) Pitting of a carbon steel pipe exposed to a strong mineral acid. (b) Close-up view shows the narrow pit mouths and the pronounced undercutting. Source: Nalco Chemical Company More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... materials must be removed. Many methods have been suggested and tested, and not all are presented here. Most methods for concentrating beryllium minerals by flotation require the use of an acidic pulp. This acid pulp could pose a problem when the beryllium minerals are combined with complex calcareous...
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 11.31: Coefficient of friction in upsetting of (a) low-carbon steel and (b) copper with various lubricants. A - mineral oil; B - lauric acid in mineral oil; C - oleic acid in mineral oil; D - same as C, but oxidized surface. More
Image
Published: 30 September 2023
Figure 11.30: Shear stress and coefficient of friction measured in upsetting of aluminum with various lubricants. A - Dry; B - Oleic acid in mineral oil, abraded surface; C - same as B, but etched; D - lauric acid in mineral oil, etched; E - mineral oil, etched; F-MoS 2 ; G - soap. More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... by roughening of the phase of interest or by preferential staining of the phase. Established chemical etchants have certain common features. Chemical etchants usually have three main components: a corrosive agent (such as hydrochloric, sulfuric, phosphoric, or acetic acid), a modifier (such as alcohol...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... -3.46 1.19 0.74 -1.60 -6.69 Lard 23.3 2.94 1.13 1.90 -4.15 1.22 0.79 -2.89 -4.17 Oleic acid 11.2 2.52 1.21 2.84 -6.39 1.16 2.15 -3.82 -2.94 Paraffinic  mineral oil 2.82 1.75 1.09 1.39 -3.39 1.45 1.21 -5.40 -1.80 Naphthenic  mineral oil 22.3 3.75 2.46 4.59...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... that has been identified as helvite. The acid-insoluble component is beryl. Both minerals have nearly the same theoretical beryllium oxide content, so the mixtures had little difficulty meeting the minimum 10 wt% BeO specification for international markets. In the past, commercial quantities of beryl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... resistance to specific environments. High-silicon cast irons represent the most universally corrosion resistant alloys available at moderate cost. When silicon levels exceed 14.2%, these cast irons exhibit excellent resistance to H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 , HCl, CH 3 COOH, and most other mineral and organic acids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
..., at a pH of 8.5. This precipitation requires the absence of fluoride, silica, phosphate, and organic matters. Beryllium can be separated from aluminum using 8-hydroxyquinoline. Aluminum is precipitated from an acetate-buffered acetic acid solution of pH 5.7. Iron and titanium can be precipitated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.caaa.t67870135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-299-0
... dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitric acid (HNO 3 ) Ammonia (NH 3 ) Particulate matter, sulfates, nitrates Meteorology Wind speed Wind direction Relative humidity (dew point) Temperature Solar radiation Rainfall volume and intensity Others Test specimen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... pulled crude oil from the ground in large quantities. Up to that time, there were many machines in use that needed lubrication to work, but lubricants from natural sources such as whales and plants carried the load. Oil, as it comes from the ground, is called mineral oil, probably because it contains...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430379
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... + → H 2 CO 3 HCO 3 − 2 + OH − → CO 3 − 2 + H 2 O The carbonic acid so formed causes corrosion of the contacting surfaces. 7.2.14 Hardness Hardness of boiler water is attributed to Ca +2 and Mg +2 minerals. Water...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... resistance to elevated-temperature oxidation, sulfidation, and chemical salt reactions. Nickel Nickel serves to stabilize the fcc structure with a view toward improved ductility during service. Nickel also improves resistance to mineral acids and stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). The quaternary alloy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... these agents have in reducing attack in normally corrosive mineral acids. Species that inhibit corrosion of titanium alloys in reducing acids Table 14.6 Species that inhibit corrosion of titanium alloys in reducing acids Inhibitor category Species Relative inhibitor potency Oxidizing metal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... structure, beryl ore is very resistant to acid attack at atmospheric pressure and from intermediate temperatures up to its boiling temperature. The complex structure of the mineral contains [Si 6 O 18 ] 12– units, each consisting of six SiO 4 4 − tetrahedra linked in a ring. In beryl...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... service to produce cutting. These wheels are used in either low- or high-speed saws. High-speed diamond saws are commonly used in cutting ceramics and minerals. The low-speed diamond saw is a more recent development, and because of its attractive characteristics, it is described in greater detail later...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... of scale and how it can be removed via belt grinding, abrasive blasting, and molten salt descaling baths. It also discusses the role of acid pickling, barrel finishing, polishing, and buffing as well as the use of chemical conversion coatings and protective platings. barrel finishing chemical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... action of the soluble minerals available. However, soils across the country differ in pH from less than 4.5 (very acidic) to greater than 9.5 (strongly alkaline). The corrosion response of a metal in contact with soil varies widely, depending on acidity. Steel, for example, is corroded in acidic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
... survived in some places until the 20th century. Prior to the introduction of sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, light scale was removed or softened on the wire surface by lengthy immersion in weak solutions of tartaric acid, brewers’ yeast, or similar organic liquids. Acid cleaning was first used...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... with aqueous mineral or organic acids. 10.4 Beryllium Carboxylates The beryllium salts of organic acids can be divided into normal beryllium carboxylates, Be(RCOO) 2 , and beryllium oxide carboxylates, Be 4 O(RCOO) 6 . The latter are prepared by dissolving beryllium oxide, hydroxide, or oxide carbonate...