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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230019
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
... Abstract Beryllium is the 44th most abundant element on Earth, with an estimated concentration of six parts per million in the Earth’s crust. It is found in various forms in more than 100 minerals, two of which, beryl and bertrandite, account for most of the beryllium produced throughout the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... imported steel. The United States had been a net exporter of steel during the 20th century, but in 1959, imports exceeded exports for the first time, with total imports reaching 4.7 million tons. Due to the boom within the integrated steel industry during the 1950s and the forecast for increasing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... acres of coalmines. The company controlled six million tons of production, about half of the nation’s total. It was capitalized at $1.4 billion ($40 billion in 2015 dollars), and shares were offered for sale to the public. In the first full year of operations, they had revenue of $560 million and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... year, common with these first minimills. With constant upgrading of equipment and process improvements, Chaparral produced one million tons per year in 10 years and two million tons per year after another 20 years. Through the leadership of Iverson and Heffernan, the minimill industry developed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... Production of titanium ores and concentrates is approaching 10 million metric tons. Current and historic production and data on titanium are maintained by the United States Government ( Ref 1.3 , 1.4 , 1.5 ). References 1.1 Froes F.H. et al. , Ed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... automobiles in the world will exceed 1.12 billion by 2015. According to the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA), the world auto production for 2011 reached over 80 million vehicles. Over the next five years, the projected number of global vehicles produced annually will exceed 100...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... Company expanded rapidly throughout the rest of the 1890s. Production reached one million pounds in 1896, 2.4 million pounds in 1897, and five million pounds in 1900. The price decreased during this same period from $0.78/lb for ingot metal in 1893 to $0.48 in 1896, $0.36 in 1897, and finally to $0.33 in...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... relationship is illustrated for four common alloy systems in Fig. 4 . For example, steel alloys are usually considered to have a modulus of elasticity of 29 to 30 million psi, but this figure is valid only for room temperature. A spring will deflect more at an elevated temperature than at room temperature and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... last century witnessed several catastrophic failures. Some of these failures are described in later sections. One of the most tragic brittle failures was that of a molasses tank that failed in Boston on Jan. 15, 1919 and flooded the city with 2.3 million gallons of molasses, drowning people and horses...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... (injuries/million hours worked) Employee training (training days/employee and year) Investment in new processes and products (% of revenue) Economic value distributed (% of revenue) The first three indicators belong to the environmental area and are of interest in the production and use of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... of grains, or crystals. For the purpose of this explanation, let us assume that it has one million grains. As the shaft rotates, each grain will successively follow the path of grain number 1, as shown in Fig. 16(a) . It starts at the neutral axis where the applied stress is zero, as shown in Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... fatigue cost the company $5 million a year due to maintenance of aircraft components reaching the end of life, but stress rupture cost the company $20 million a year due to catastrophic engine failure and aircraft loss, then the company focus might be on the stress rupture failure cause, even though it...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
..., the F-20 consumed 53% less fuel, required 52% less maintenance labor, incurred 63% lower operating and maintenance costs, and offered four times the reliability. In an era when comparable aircraft cost $15 to $30 million apiece, Northrop designed one that cost about $1 million by eliminating all the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... the highly inflammable cyclohexane. On Jan. 2, 1988, a 4 million gallon oil storage tank collapsed during the first filling after a reconstruction, producing a major environmental impact. The tank was first built in 1940, dismantled in 1986 leaving the old welds in place, and reconstructed in 1987...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... compacted and sintered stainless steels. The market for MIM parts was estimated to be $150 million for North America and $360 million globally in 2005 ( Ref 9 ). The MIM stainless steel tonnage was estimated worldwide to be 1450 metric tons in 2005 ( Ref 10 ). Relatively low capital investment cost, in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... programs was estimated at $60 million. The steel industry investment in the FSV project was $80 million. WorldAutoSteel invested $6 million on the FSV program. The 2002 ULSAB-AVC program shifted vehicle material content from a majority of mild and high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel to 80% AHSS, to...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... transmission housings suffer from corrosion, wear, and/or impact damage. When the damage reaches a critical level, the damaged components are removed from service and discarded or put in long-term storage. The cost for replacing these components is in the millions of dollars ( Ref 9.11 ). The 2009 Sikorsky...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... hundred million dollars of investment by the federal government and the industries that became involved in production. Many factors came together at this time that influenced all levels of government to cooperate. All through World War II, there were shortages of certain materials vital to the war...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aceg.t68410021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-280-8
... in many applications. Millions of cylinder blocks and heads have been running in many vehicles for many years. Figures 3.5 and 3.6 rationalize why these castings work in spite of larger DAS and pore fraction. Figure 3.4 ( Ref 2 ) shows the differences in microstructure between DAS of 30 and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... of millions of small crystals, all packed together. Each crystal is called a grain . A typical grain diameter is 30 to 50 μm (0.0012 to 0.002 in.), where 25 microns = 25 μm = 0.001 in. = 1 mil. The boundaries between the crystals are called grain boundaries . Below 912 °C (1670 °F), iron...