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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract This chapter covers the friction and wear behaviors of cast irons. It describes the microstructure and metallurgy of gray, white, malleable, and ductile cast irons, their respective tensile properties, and their suitability for applications involving friction, various types of erosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... Abstract This chapter covers the friction and wear behaviors of carbon, alloy, and tool steels. It begins a review of commercially available shapes and forms. It then describes the metallurgy and microstructure of various designations and grades of each type of steel and explains how it affects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., and fracture of steels. Cementite is very hard, ranging in hardness from 800 to 1400 HV, depending on the substitution of elements for iron. Heat treatment also can alter the amount, shape, and distribution of the hard cementite particles in the microstructure of steel. For example, the hard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The decomposition of austenite, during controlled cooling or quenching, produces a wide variety of microstructures in response to such factors as steel composition, temperature of transformation, and cooling rate. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This includes various methods namely, annealing, normalizing, and hardening by quenching and tempering. This chapter focuses on general heat treatment procedures and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., sometimes attaining the specified microstructural and mechanical properties requires heat treatment in addition to the as-cast thermal cycle. Some types of iron castings also are routinely heat treated as a regular part of their production process. For example, malleable iron castings are subjected to a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... STEEL is a simple process that achieves a microstructure that will result in the steel becoming harder and stronger. The microstructural constituents that are most desirable in hardened steel are martensite and, to a lesser degree, bainite. The annealed microstructures, pearlite, and spheroidized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... is roughly defined as controlled heating and/or cooling of a solid material so as to change the microstructure (atomic structure) in order to obtain specific properties. There are many types of heat treatment processes, each having a different purpose, such as stress relieving, tempering, annealing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... most frequently used steel. Carbon is the main factor affecting the hardness and mechanical properties of steel, and carbon content increases the hardness (strength) for all types of microstructures, with martensitic microstructures having the greatest hardness. ( Fig. 1 ). Hardness increases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... worked alloy or to relieve builtup strains in the cold-worked microstructure. Another basic type of anneal is the homogenization annealing of cast alloys, in which the as-cast microstructure is converted to a more uniform (homogenized) condition. Annealing is a common practice for all types of ferrous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... composition (carbon and alloy content) at the austenitizing temperature and the austenite grain size at the moment of quenching. In addition to composition, the hardening response of steel also can depend on other variables, such as austenitizing temperature, time at temperature, and prior microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., manganese, and nitrogen, whereas elements such as silicon, molybdenum, and titanium restrict the Fe-Cr gamma loop. The actions of these elements form the metallurgical basis for the five microstructural categories of stainless steels (ferritic, austenitic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... true of the sulfide inclusions in resulfurized grades. Most of the carbides in PM high-speed tool steels are less than about 3 μm, and those in the conventional product cover the entire size range up to about 34 μm, with a median size of 6 μm. Microstructures of PM and conventionally processed T15 are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... Abstract This chapter provides details on powder-binder processing for three materials, namely precipitation-hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel, cemented carbides, and alumina. The types of powders, binders, feedstock, shaping processes, debinding, sintering cycles, compositions, microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... the events that are contributing to sintering densification, followed by a discussion on the driving forces, such as surface energy, and high-temperature atomic motion as well as the factors affecting these processes. The process of microstructure evolution in sintering is then described, followed by...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... 10.1016/0921-5093(95)09785-6 • Kipphut C.M. , Bose A. , Farooq S. , and German R.M. , Gravity and Configurational Energy Induced Microstructural Changes in Liquid Phase Sintering , Metall. Trans. A , Vol 19 , 1988 , p 1905 – 1913 10.1007/BF02645192 • Kusy R.P...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.t59290009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
... chemistry, microstructure, and properties. The powder characteristics are customized for the shaping approaches to enable key component attributes, for example, high green strength or easy tool filling. Contrast the powders shown in Fig. 2.2 and 2.3 ; the first is a large, spherical titanium powder with...