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microstructure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The existence of austenite and ferrite, along with carbon alloying, is fundamental in the heat treatment of steel. In view of the importance of structure and its formation to heat treatment, this chapter describes the various microstructures that form in steels, the various factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract The decomposition of austenite, during controlled cooling or quenching, produces a wide variety of microstructures in response to such factors as steel composition, temperature of transformation, and cooling rate. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the isothermal...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract This chapter describes the general characteristics of major types of steel annealing, including the process of normalization, which is a process that refines or normalizes the microstructure of steel. The first part of the chapter begins with an overview of the three-stage process of...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Abstract Heat treatment of steel involves a number of processes to condition the microstructure and obtain desired properties. This includes various methods namely, annealing, normalizing, and hardening by quenching and tempering. This chapter focuses on general heat treatment procedures and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., sometimes attaining the specified microstructural and mechanical properties requires heat treatment in addition to the as-cast thermal cycle. Some types of iron castings also are routinely heat treated as a regular part of their production process. For example, malleable iron castings are subjected to a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... STEEL is a simple process that achieves a microstructure that will result in the steel becoming harder and stronger. The microstructural constituents that are most desirable in hardened steel are martensite and, to a lesser degree, bainite. The annealed microstructures, pearlite, and spheroidized...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... is roughly defined as controlled heating and/or cooling of a solid material so as to change the microstructure (atomic structure) in order to obtain specific properties. There are many types of heat treatment processes, each having a different purpose, such as stress relieving, tempering, annealing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... hardening response of steel also can depend on other variables, such as austenitizing temperature, time at temperature, and prior microstructure. This article introduces the methods to evaluate hardenability and the factors that influence steel hardenability and selection. Hardenability of steel is also the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... most frequently used steel. Carbon is the main factor affecting the hardness and mechanical properties of steel, and carbon content increases the hardness (strength) for all types of microstructures, with martensitic microstructures having the greatest hardness. ( Fig. 1 ). Hardness increases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., manganese, and nitrogen, whereas elements such as silicon, molybdenum, and titanium restrict the Fe-Cr gamma loop. The actions of these elements form the metallurgical basis for the five microstructural categories of stainless steels (ferritic, austenitic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation hardening...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... true of the sulfide inclusions in resulfurized grades. Most of the carbides in PM high-speed tool steels are less than about 3 μm, and those in the conventional product cover the entire size range up to about 34 μm, with a median size of 6 μm. Microstructures of PM and conventionally processed T15 are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... worked alloy or to relieve builtup strains in the cold-worked microstructure. Another basic type of anneal is the homogenization annealing of cast alloys, in which the as-cast microstructure is converted to a more uniform (homogenized) condition. Annealing is a common practice for all types of ferrous...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bpapp.9781627083195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-319-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.9781627082969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.9781627082655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.9781627083188
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.9781627082792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... and scale of eutectic structures, and the competitive growth of dendrites and eutectic colonies or cells. It also examines the different types of precipitation structures that form during slow cooling cycles. aluminum-silicon alloys eutectic systems lead-tin-alloys microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the phase transformations of peritectic alloy systems. It describes the processes involved with equilibrium and nonequilibrium freezing, the mechanisms of peritectic formation, and the resulting microstructures. It also discusses the formation of peritectic...