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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the crystal structures of steel and cast iron, the iron-iron carbide equilibrium diagram, microconstituents or phases in the iron-iron carbide phase diagram, the iron-carbon carbide-silicon equilibrium diagram of cast irons, and the influence on microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
..., and explains how it can be modified through temperature control or alloy additions to improve properties such as tensile strength and plasticity and reduce shrinkage. cast aluminum-silicon alloys grain morphology microstructure phase constituents solid solution 1.1 Phase Constituents of Cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Abstract This chapter is an atlas of microstructures observed in AlSi7Mg, AlSi11, and Al21CuNiMg modified with either eutectic (strontium, sodium) or hypereutectic (phosphorus) silicon crystals. The microstructure images reveal the as-cast state of gravity castings made in sand and metal molds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... of segregation and inclusions and their effect on the mechanical properties and microstructure of steel. It explains how to identify various types of inclusions and characteristic segregation patterns, such as banding. It also describes the effect of hot work processing on solidification structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract The microstructure of superalloys is highly complex, with a large number of dispersed intermetallics and other phases that modify alloy behavior through their composition, morphology, and distribution. This chapter provides an overview of the most notable phases, including the matrix...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... Abstract This chapter explains the distinction between materials and matter through the concept of microstructure. It presents the history of matter science and the establishment of metallography. The chapter provides an overview of the progress of steel technology, progress in synthetic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... Abstract This chapter provides a classification of the types of microstructural changes and transformations and then reviews each type. It presents the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation and explains the thermodynamics of eutectic solidification and eutectoid transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Abstract In castings, microstructural features are products of metal chemistry and solidification conditions. The microstructural features, excluding defects, that most strongly affect the mechanical properties or aluminum castings are size, form, and distribution of intermetallic phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter introduces the basic ferrous physical metallurgy principles that need to be understood by the metallographer. The discussion focuses on the variations in microstructures that are generated as a result of the phase transformations that occur during both heat treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract Microstructures can be altered intentionally or unintentionally. In some cases, metallographers must diagnose what may have happened to the steel or cast iron based on the microstructural details. This chapter discusses how microstructure in steels and cast irons can be intentionally...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the important aspects that a metallographer should understand in order to effectively reveal a microstructure. It begins by exploring etching response and how it can be a tool for revealing various microstructural features. The next part of the chapter discusses...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter explains how to achieve accurate, sharp delineation of the microstructure of metals using appropriate etching and contrasting techniques. It covers a variety of methods, including chemical etching, heat tinting, gas contrasting, vapor deposition, magnetic etching, ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This appendix contains tables that list the composition and capabilities of etchants that reveal the microstructure of metals and alloys, including aluminum, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, radioactive metals, rare earth...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter provides perspective on the physical dimensions associated with the microstructure of steel and the instruments that reveal grain size, morphology, phase distributions, crystal defects, and chemical composition, from which properties and behaviors derive. The chapter also reviews...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the development and use of microstructure models for optimizing superalloy forging operations. It describes how the processes that control grain structure evolution during hot working were used in model formulation and compares predicted microstructures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... This chapter describes the ferritic microstructures that form in carbon steels under continuous cooling conditions. It begins with a review of the Dubé classification system for crystal morphologies. It then explains how cooling-rate-induced changes involving carbon atom diffusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... Abstract This atlas contains images showing how sintering conditions (time, temperature, and atmosphere) and compaction pressure affect the microstructure of different types of stainless steel. It also includes images of stainless steel powders, fracture surfaces, and test specimens...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.9781627083577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... Abstract This chapter is a study of the microstructure of case-hardened steels. It explains what can be learned by examining grain size, microcracking, nonmetallic inclusions, and the effects of microsegregation. It identifies information-rich features, describing their ideal characteristics...
Image
Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.125 (a) Microstructure at fracture surface, 400×. (b) General microstructure of a tube, 400×. (c) Microstructure of a weld and heat-affected zone, 400×. (d) Microstructure after etching with oxalic acid, 400× More