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microstructural defects

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Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.166 Microstructural defects in weld, (a) 200×, (b) 100×, (c) 200×. (d) Microstructure of the weld, 100×. (e) Microstructure of outer surface near weld, 200×. (f) Puncture contours showing corrosion damage, 200× More
Image
Published: 01 December 2000
Fig. 4.7 Representative microstructural defects in titanium alloys. (a) Type I alpha segregation; large voids surrounded by stabilized alpha. (b) Type I alpha segregation; small voids surrounded by stabilized alpha. (c) Type II alpha segregation as revealed by an etch-anodized technique. (d More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
.... The parent metal microstructure was banded ferrite-pearlite, a normal microstructure for the tube. The weld microstructure consisted of dendritic ferrite and fine carbides. The weld region showed multiple types of defect such as porosity, undercut, and lack of fusion at the weld interpass ( Fig. 6.166a...
Image
Published: 01 August 2015
cracking is aided by inclusion defects. 2% nital. 200×. (g) SAE 1144 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite where cracking is aided by inclusion defects. Unetched. 100×. More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... by inclusion defects. 2% nital. 200×. (g) SAE 1144 steel as quenched and tempered; microstructure is tempered martensite where cracking is aided by inclusion defects. Unetched. 100×. Fig. 9.14 (Part 3) Micrographs of cracks. (h) SAE 8630 steel as quenched; microstructure is martensite where cracking...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... reinforcement is left intact. The goal of this test is to verify that overload failure will occur in the base metal rather than in the weld metal or HAZ. Ductility Ductility is another critical weld property. In addition to defects, many welding processes can produce hard, brittle microstructures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
... place by dissolution, which is effected by the higher superheat possible in cold-hearth melting compared to VAR. Fig. 4.7 Representative microstructural defects in titanium alloys. (a) Type I alpha segregation; large voids surrounded by stabilized alpha. (b) Type I alpha segregation; small voids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of crack initiation could not be established, material defects, improper root loading, and high operating temperatures were ruled out. This chapter describes how investigators came to their conclusions and what they learned through visual and SEM examination and qualitative elemental analysis. It includes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... and microstructural defects that make modern advanced materials possible. There are many cases when the addition of a second element to a given matrix results in the formation of a compound that then precipitates within the matrix, for example, the addition of carbon in iron to form Fe 3 C, the addition of Al...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter presents a step-by-step approach for analyzing the causes of nonconforming workpieces and determining potential solutions. The discussion covers a wide range of issues, including testing errors, latent and process-related defects, examination and testing techniques, defect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... controls the size and shape of grains, the extent of segregation, and the distribution of inclusions and defects such as porosity and hot cracks. Since the properties and integrity of the weld metal depend on the solidification behavior and the resulting microstructural characteristics, understanding weld...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... and strain development should always be considered, as should optimizing weld joint design as discussed above. Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (Cold Cracking) Cold cracks are defects that form as the result of the contamination of the weld microstructure by hydrogen. Whereas solidification cracking and HAZ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... Abstract In castings, microstructural features are products of metal chemistry and solidification conditions. The microstructural features, excluding defects, that most strongly affect the mechanical properties or aluminum castings are size, form, and distribution of intermetallic phases...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.isceg.t59320103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-332-4
.... casting defects chemical composition gating gray iron iron castings mechanical properties microstructure pouring rate slag entrainment stress relieving white cast iron GRAY IRON, one of the earliest cast metals discovered, has been the most widely used cast material over the centuries. Its...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... of the continuous cast microstructure of aluminum and copper alloys. The discussion provides information on billet and grain segregation and defects in continuous casting. The chapter then discusses the processes involved in the deformation of pure metals and alloys at room temperature. Next, it describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... are dependent on the microstructural products that are present in steel. Typically, the first step in the transformation process is to heat the steel to its austenitizing temperature. The austenitized steel is then cooled rapidly to avoid the formation of pearlite, which is a relatively soft transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
..., and the microstructure of the forging. 16.5.1 Metal Flow The information on metal flow is very important for die design. Improper metal flow produces defects in the forging. In real closed-die forging, it is necessary to wait until the forging is finished to see the forged part and the defect, if there is one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... stainless steels heat treatment isothermal transformation microstructural defects steels superalloys 3.1 Introduction Materials used for different engineering applications are broadly classified as metallic materials (i.e., metals and alloys), ceramics, or plastics and polymers. The combination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.... Hydrogen-Induced Cracking (Cold Cracking) Cold cracks are defects that form as the result of the contamination of the weld microstructure by hydrogen. Whereas solidification cracking and HAZ cracking occur during or soon after the actual welding process, hydrogen-induced cracking is usually a delayed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-packed, and body-centered cubic. It then describes the four main divisions of crystal defects, namely point defects, line defects, planar defects, and volume defects. The chapter provides information on grain boundaries of metals, processes involved in atomic diffusion, and key properties of a solid...