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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 23 January 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stemsem.9781627082921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-292-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Moore's Law has driven many degree circuit features below the resolving capability of optical microscopy. Yet the optical microscope remains a valuable tool in failure analysis. This article describes the physics governing resolution and useful techniques for extracting the small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... transmission acoustic technique called scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM) and are also used for this application ( Fig. 44) . These two techniques can each produce images of packaged ICs, and therefore have partially overlapping capabilities. However, unique capabilities of each technique make them...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... SEM and optical microscopy is summarized in Table 1 . Table 1 Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Technique SEM Optical Microscope Resolution Few nm λ/2 ~ 250 nm Depth of field Large (up to mm) Very shallow (~λ) at high magnification Contrast Material composition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract The ultimate goal of the failure analysis process is to find physical evidence that can identify the root cause of the failure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has emerged as a powerful tool to characterize subtle defects. This article discusses the sample preparation procedures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) has an increasing important role in the development of nanoscale semiconductor technologies. This article presents a detailed discussion on various SPM techniques including Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy, Scanning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110010
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... optical inspection, X-ray inspection, scanning acoustic microscopy, infrared (IR) microscopy, and electrical verification. The article discusses various fault isolation techniques to tackle the wide array of failure signatures, namely IR lock-in thermography, magnetic current imaging, time domain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-destructive localization techniques. The techniques considered for advanced fault isolation are magnetic current imaging for shorts and opens; infrared thermography for electrical shorts; time-domain-reflectometry for shorts and opens; scanning acoustic microscopy; and 2D/3D X-Ray microscopy. The individual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110062
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... microscopy and its application in failure analysis of integrated circuit (IC) packaging and IC boards. The final section is devoted to the discussion on nanoscale 3D X-ray microscopy and its applications. failure analysis integrated circuit boards integrated circuit packaging nanoscale 3D X-ray...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This article reviews the basic physics behind active photon injection for local photocurrent generation in silicon and thermal laser stimulation along with standard scanning optical microscopy failure analysis tools. The discussion includes several models for understanding the local...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... thin films are inspected using scanning electron microscopy until the defect site is revealed. Depending on the nature of the failure, a secondary localization step using nanoprobing may be required to further pinpoint the exact fail location or characterize the defect. The final step involves...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... failing sectors. Bitmapping of the failing sectors showed both horizonal and vertical sector blocks involved ( Figure 10 ). Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) analysis did not review any obvious anomaly at the package level (Figures 11). X-ray inspection from the top-view and side-view did not show wire...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to have single procedure experts for all procedures. A good compromise is to use specialists for tools/processes where optimum performance is critical (e.g. Scanning Probe Microscopy, FIB Device Modification, Materials Analysis tools, etc.) and generalists for broader applications (e.g. electrical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... microscopy can be found elsewhere [29 , 24 , 9] . The magnetoresistive microscope depends upon a sensor which is intrinsically less sensitive to magnetic fields than the SQUID, but is more readily miniaturized to the nanoscale. These magnetoresistive sensors are routinely fabricated with dimensions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to IO SHORTs which requires further work to make it effective but do not have technical gap today as IO-IO SHORTs can be covered by other FI tools. Comparing long chain TDT to Scanning Squid Microscopy (SSM), SSM is easier to interpret with current flowing through the failing circuit whereas TDT has...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Microscopy (SCM) demonstrates the enabling importance of CMP [21] . Final polishing can be done in contour mode or simply with a constant loading force. The soft nature of the polish tip reduces the concern over curvature and tip convolution. Both the 3-axis and 5-axis milling methods use select...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... microscopy is Abbe’s law (eq. 1) R = r λ N A with the wavelength λ, NA the numerical aperture of the objective and the Rayleigh criterion r = 0.61. For air gap objectives, NA is the sine of the objective opening angle, necessarily a little smaller than 1. A rough approximation of R is λ/2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...-migration test structure. (a) I = 70 mA (actual surface temperature is 36.7 °C), (b) I = 100 mA (actual surface temperature is 52.0 °C), (c) sample coated with black paint, I = 100 mA (actual surface temperature is 55.4 °C). Thermal infrared (IR) microscopy has experienced a decisive technical...