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microscopic examination

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
..., polishing, and etching. The discussion covers their basic principles, advantages, types, and applications, as well as the equipment setup. The chapter includes tables that list etchants used for microscopic examination. It also provides information on microscopic examination, microphotography...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... Abstract This chapter discusses the techniques applicable to the diagnosis of corrosion failures, including visual and microscopic examination of corroded surfaces and microstructure; chemical analysis of the metal, corrosion products, and bulk environment; nondestructive evaluation methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to characterize cracking and fracture damage, and explains what to look for during macroscopic and microscopic examinations as well as chemical and metallographic analyses. It also includes nearly a dozen case studies investigating SCC failures in various materials. failure analysis macroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
..., scanning electron microscopy, along with EDAX, spectrometry, chromatography (depending on material type) Interference Dimensional inspection, tolerance analysis, visual examination, microscopic examination Wear Dimensional inspection, tolerance analysis, visual examination, microscopic examination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... and electron microscopy. It presents a number of images recorded using these methods and explains what they reveal about the mode of fracture and the state of the component prior to failure. fractography microscopic examination macroscopy IN FAILURE ANALYSIS, examination is done at various levels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the steps involved in replicating part surfaces. etchants etching metallographic replication microscopic examination sample preparation Several techniques are used to observe the structure of steels and cast irons in the microscopic scale. For many of these techniques, sampling and sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
.... failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination IN THE STUDY OF ANY FAILURE, the analyst must consider a broad spectrum of possibilities or reasons for the occurrence. Often a large number of factors, frequently interrelated, must be understood to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
..., and/or cleaning of critical specimens Macroscopic examination and analysis fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, and other surface phenomena) Microscopic examination and analysis of fracture surfaces Selection, preparation, examination, and analysis of metallographic sections Determination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Temperature Testing time Applicability Evaluation method Practice A Oxalic acid etch screening test ambient 1.5 min Chromium carbide sensitization only Microscopic examination; classification of etch structure B Ferric sulfate-50% sulfuric acid boiling 120 h Chromium carbide Weight-loss...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
.... It is on a microscopic scale that the characteristics of ductile deformation and fracture really become unique. It is necessary to examine both the changes that are visible with a light microscope and those that can be examined only with an electron microscope at magnifications not attainable by a light microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...; these tiny voids soon coalesce, or interconnect, and form fracture surfaces that have many half-voids, or dimples, on each side of the fracture face. This is the “dimpled rupture” fracture surface that is visible by electron microscope examination, as shown in Chapter 9, “Ductile Fracture,” in this book...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Striations typical of fatigue seen on the fracture surface Microscopic examination confirms that the blade failed due to fatigue, the crack originating from corrosion pits at the transition region of the root on the convex side of the airfoil and propagating inward. The pit acting as a stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... operation. The two adjacent blades had one crack each. Microscopic examination revealed that the failure and the cracking were due to fretting action of the shroud pins inside the shroud holes. A second-stage turbine blade failed in service, the fracture running through the shroud hole. The failed blade...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
.... Composite material crazing, cracking, and other similar failures are addressed in the following section. Plastic component failures can be analyzed using many of the same techniques as metal failures, including visual and microscopic examination, surface fractography, and materials analysis using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... blade of a helicopter had developed cracks on the aluminum alloy skin. Visual and electron microscopic examination revealed that a fatigue crack had originated at the trailing edge of the blade on the sandwiched aluminum alloy center sheet on the underside of a rivet hole. Propagation of this crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... and closes the doors to the undercarriage compartment. The failed component was removed from the aircraft and examined using optical and electron microscopes. Under low magnification, the fracture surface appeared jagged except for one corner that was relatively smooth. SEM fractography revealed the presence...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract During a routine preflight inspection of a piston aircraft engine, part of a cooling fin was found that had broken off the cylinder. The piece, made of aluminum-silicon alloy, was cleaned and examined. Based on the fracture characteristics revealed by an electron microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract A pair of bolts on a connecting rod failed during a test run for a prototype engine. They were replaced by bolts made from a stronger material that also failed, one due to fatigue, the other by tensile overload. The fracture surfaces on all four bolts were examined using optical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
.... CH8.1 The broken tie-rod of the developmental aircraft towing tractor Fig. CH8.2 Close-up view of the fracture surface Scanning electron microscopic examination of the fracture surface shown in Fig. CH8.2 revealed characteristics of brittle fracture ( Fig. CH8.3 ). In order...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
.... Hallimond A. F. : The Polarizing Microscope , 3d ed. , Vickers Instruments , New York , 1970 . 17. Perryman E. C. W. , and Lack J. M. : “ Examination of Metals by Polarized Light, ” Nature , vol. 167 , no. 4247 , 1951 , p. 479 . 10.1038/167479a0 18. Morrough H...