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microscopic characteristics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... (initiation, propagation, and final rupture) of fatigue fracture followed by a discussion of its microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. The relationship between stress and strength in fatigue is explained. The next section provides information that may help the uninitiated to appreciate some...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract Several specialized instruments are available for the metallographer to use as tools to gather key information on the characteristics of the microstructure being analyzed. These include microscopes that use electrons as a source of illumination instead of light and x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the most common micro-analytical technique in the failure analysis laboratory: energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). It discusses the general characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of some of the X-ray detectors attached...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...-alloy metals. This is illustrated later in this chapter. Microstructural Aspects of Ductile Fracture It is on a microscopic scale that the characteristics of ductile deformation and fracture really become unique. It is necessary to examine both the changes that are visible with a light microscope...
Image
Published: 30 April 2021
Fig. 3.7 Output of an atomic force microscope operating in lateral force mode to show friction characteristics on four different film surfaces More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... electrons of the various atoms to be ejected with the release of X-ray energies and wavelengths characteristic of the atoms ( Ref 1.4 ). In the scanning electron microscope the characteristic energy spectra are typically measured by solid state detectors in the process referred to as Energy Dispersive...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses field, visual, physical, and metallurgical examinations of gear failures. Physical examinations reviewed include nondestructive testing, including magnetic-particle inspection, tooth characteristic studies, surface hardness testing, ultrasonic testing, nital...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract The scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) is an important tool for development of improved molded and flip chip packages. The SAM used for integrated circuit inspection is a hybrid instrument with characteristics of both the Stanford SAM and the C-scan recorder. This chapter presents...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... characteristics and applications of environmental SEM. image composition sample mounting sample preparation sample tilt scanning electron microscope sputter coating ultra-high resolution Introduction The scanning electron microscope (SEM) remains the most versatile instrument in the failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Abstract This chapter focuses on the effects of microscopic organisms and the by-products they produce on the electrochemical corrosion of metals. It begins by considering the characteristics of organisms that allow them to interact with the corrosion processes, the mechanisms by which...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract During a routine preflight inspection of a piston aircraft engine, part of a cooling fin was found that had broken off the cylinder. The piece, made of aluminum-silicon alloy, was cleaned and examined. Based on the fracture characteristics revealed by an electron microscope...
Image
Published: 01 April 2004
Fig. 1.14 Spread characteristics of binary solder alloys on an “ideal” substrate as a function of excess temperature above the melting point. The substrate is a flat, microscope slide, sputter metallized with 0.1 μm (4 μin.) of chromium overlaid with 0.1 μm (4 μin.) of gold. Spread ratio More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., this microscope is usually used to observe general characteristics of the material, not localized particularities, because it is difficult to guarantee that areas of specific interest will be effectively analyzed. In recent years, there has been a significant improvement in the ability to locate and sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... diffraction, and neutron diffraction. These techniques provide information on the chemical composition of the material, microstructure and phase analysis, and also the surface characteristics. From a failure investigation point of view, the characterization of boiler tubes entails the determination...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... and electron microscopy. It presents a number of images recorded using these methods and explains what they reveal about the mode of fracture and the state of the component prior to failure. fractography microscopic examination macroscopy IN FAILURE ANALYSIS, examination is done at various levels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface irregularity, birefringence, and internal contamination must also be considered. These characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... of the cable runs over the pulley. Testing Procedure and Results Microscopy and Scanning Electron Fractography The failed cable was examined in a stereobinocular microscope and in a SEM. The cable was made up of seven strands of seven wires each. Out of these, 40 wires contained evidence of thinning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
..., or permanent, deformation. Microstructural Aspects of Ductile Fracture It is on a microscopic scale that the characteristics of ductile deformation and fracture really become unique. It is necessary to examine both the changes that are visible with a light microscope and those that can be examined only...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter discusses the tools and techniques of light microscopy and how they are used in the study of materials. It reviews the basic physics of light, the inner workings of light microscopes, and the relationship between resolution and depth of field. It explains the difference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article depicts typical fractographic features for a number of different composite materials, covering interlaminar and translaminar fracture characteristics in composite materials. fractography composites interlaminar fracture translaminar fracture FRACTURE SURFACES...