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microscale models

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article describes the basic approaches to improving the fire resistance of a polymeric material, considers the burning process on a microscale and macroscale, and discusses various test methods for determining the flammability characteristics of polymeric materials. Test methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... Abstract This chapter develops a corrosion model that accounts for solution potentials and the effects of coupling between cathodic and anodic reactions. It begins by examining potential differences at various points (in the solution) along a path from the anode to the cathode area. It then...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190vii
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... typical polycrystalline cast parts are the result of three groups of parameters: chemical composition, technology, and microstructure ( Fig. 2 ). Fig. 2 Formation of cast part properties: factors of macro- and microscale parameters A cast part of a technical alloy is built of particular...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of damage ought to be reached to cause initiation. This critical level of damage seems to correspond to the sudden crack jump characterized by Δ K th . Efforts are underway to develop techniques for quantitative damage analysis ( Ref 35 ). Presently, fatigue damage on the microscale leading to crack...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... adiabatic shear instability found in explosive welding; but, in this case, it occurs on a microscale. Fig. 1.1 The high-pressure cold spray process uses a high-pressure gas heater and a high-pressure powder feeder to inject the spray powder upstream of the nozzle throat. This provides the very high...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... must be in residual tension to balance the system of forces. This is the scale usually considered for engineering purposes. Microscale: This scale is used in consideration of the stresses in an individual grain, or group of grains. The grains are affected by the macrostress field in which they are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... macro- and microscale aspects of deformation and fracture, it is useful to study the load-carrying characteristics of an engineering material through its stress-strain curve obtained from a tension test. The information provided by such a curve is particularly useful to those involved with the plastic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... the 20th century with the discovery of the electron, it was recognized that atoms were not quite “indivisible.” In 1911, Niels Bohr developed a simplified model of the hydrogen atom that consisted of a single electron orbiting a relatively massive, positively charged nucleus. Bohr postulated that the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... metals, the fracture surface of these materials is flat (at low magnification). Cleavage steps (river patterns) may be visible at the macroscale in organic glasses and brittle polymers, but are visible only at the microscale in metallic materials ( Ref 7.37 ). For the soda lime glass shown in Fig. 7.29...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... opposite the origin. The interior, or core, is likely to have a ductile fracture with dimpled rupture on the microscale. Fig. 5 Surface of a torsional fatigue crack that caused brittle fracture of the case of an induction-hardened axle of 1541 steel. The fatigue crack originated (arrow) at a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... can follow in a different manner, with the fourth layer being another close-packed plane ( Fig. A1.19 ). The order of distinct crystallographic planes in an fcc system thus has the general stacking sequence of ABC-ABC-ABC , and so on. Fig. A1.18 Ball models of stacking. (a) An fcc structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... within the same framework as metals (e.g., the role of antishear twinning, microtwinning, etc. [1] ). The microstructure of these materials controls microscale fracture mechanisms and fracture site initiation. In this book, intermetallics, such as TiAl, Ti 3 Al, NiAl, and Ni 3 Al, are treated the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... microscale residual stress in a part is the total residual stress minus the macroscale residual and the pseudo-macroscale residual stress. Causes of residual stresses include: Other than component design, the quenching process itself is one of the most frequently encountered problems in heat treating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... modeling of metallic material behavior, it is not common to describe behavior of polymeric material in terms of dislocation models and/or microscale slip and twinning processes. Behavior of polymeric materials also depends strongly on whether the service temperature is above or below the glass transition...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... creating a tear zone (and sharpened crack-tip radius) in front of the crack. In steels, this tear zone can then cause the critical crack length to be exceeded, such that unstable cleavage fracture occurs or unstable microscale ductile fracture is induced. Which event occurs depends on the temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... brittle, even though the microscopic mechanisms involve slip and are thus microscale ductile. On a macroscopic scale, long-life fatigue failures are brittle. There is little or no net-section distortion; the fracture is typically macroscopically flat and generally transverse to the direction of cyclic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... of 1 to 100× using the unaided eye, a hand lens, a low-power stereoscopic microscope, or SEM. Performing both macro- and microscale microstructural examination of unetched and etched specimens provides important evidence about the type and structure of the material involved in the failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... phase is anodic, and the continuous phase supports the cathodic reaction. Chemical segregation in castings: The mechanism of solidification of alloys almost always leads to segregation on either a microscale or macroscale. This is particularly true of solid solution alloys that solidify with...