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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains detailed micrographs of nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys selected to illustrate the microstructural features described in this book. micrograph microstructure superalloys Comprising the Micrograph Gallery are selected nickel- and cobalt...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the transformations, grain structure, and properties associated with each phase and identifies the primary stabilizing elements. It includes several micrographs revealing various microstructural features and describes the processing route by which they were achieved. It explains how to estimate the volume fraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... microcracks on the tooth flank of an oil-lubricated nylon driving gear. 37×. Source: Ref 53 Fig. 16 Failed polyoxymethylene gear wheel that had been in operation in a boiler-room environment. 305×. Source: Ref 53 Fig. 10 Micrographs of worn polyetheretherketone (PEEK) surfaces...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Fig. 23 Scanning electron microscope micrographs of worn surfaces of PA 66 hybrid composites. AF, aramid fiber; CF, carbon fiber; N, normal; P, parallel. (a) Hybrid (layer) composite, AF(N)/CF(P). (b) Hybrid (sandwich) composite, AF(N)/CF(P), stopping crack responsible for less wear. (c) AF(N)/CF(P...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the microstructure and properties of annealed and normalized steels containing more than 0.25% carbon. It shows, using detailed micrographs, how incrementally higher levels of carbon affect the structure and distribution of pearlite and how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...) Austenitized at 850 °C, water quenched, tempered at 700 °C for 1 h. 285 HV. Picral. 1000×. (h) Austenitized at 850 °C, water quenched, tempered at 700 °C for 2 h. 275 HV. Picral. 1000×. Fig. 10.2 (Part 1) Basic effects of tempering. 0.4% C (0.43C-0.22Si-0.86Mn, wt%). These micrographs are the same...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... Fig. 14 Micrograph, original magnification at 200×, of a transverse section from a specimen of austenitic stainless steel, showing a branching, transgranular stress-corrosion crack Fig. 15 Fracture surface of a high-strength steel part that failed from stress corrosion, showing progression...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of surface roughness, the factors that contribute to it, and its effect on image quality. It discusses the use of fixturing and holding devices, includes photographic examples of polishing defects and drying marks, and provides an overview of micrographic etchants and the features they reveal. It also...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... This appendix provides additional information on superalloy microstructures. It includes several micrographs showing metallographic features mentioned in the text but not illustrated elsewhere in the book. It also discusses carbide reactions that occur during heat treating and demonstrates...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
...) Equiaxed α and intergranular β. (l) Equiaxed α and intergranular β. Etchant: 10 HF, 5 HNO 3 , 85 H 2 O. 250× Fig. 3.12 Structure of mill-annealed alpha-beta alloy (Ti-6Al-4V). Structure is globular particles of β in a matrix of α. Optical micrograph. ~500× Fig. 3.10 Schematic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... a microscope or metallograph (a dedicated microscope with built-in camera for taking micrographs). A full understanding of the various features of a metallurgical microscope is necessary in order to intelligently procure this type of instrument. These features include such things as apochromatic objectives...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... in the temperature range just below that at which pearlite forms, typically below 500 °C (930 °F). Figure 6.5 shows light micrographs of upper bainite formed by holding 4360 steel at 495 °C (920 °F) and 410 °C (770 °F). The bainite appears dark, and the individual ferritic crystals have an acicular shape...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and precipitation strengthening. The microstructure of a typical microalloyed steel is shown in Fig. 1.7 . Fig. 1.7 Micrograph of a microalloyed 450 MPa (65 ksi) yield strength linepipe steel showing a microstructure consisting of ferrite (light etching constituent), a small amount of pearlite (dark etching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... The digitized image of a typical field displayed on the monitor is shown in Fig. 6.3 . After completing the collection of data and allowing the computer time to analyze the data, the following information was obtained about the constituents in this AISI/SAE 1020 specimen: Fig. 6.2 Micrograph of AISI/SAE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
..., nickel, and magnesium ( Ref 5.6 – 5.15 ), as well as alloys based on aluminum (2052, 6061, etc.), magnesium (AZ31B, ZE41A, etc.), nickel (IN718, IN625, IN738, etc.), and titanium (Ti-64, CP-Ti, etc.), with optical micrographs of the as-processed coating ( Ref 5.6 – 5.18 ). The coating porosity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... investigational techniques Structures that cannot be observed or recognized at all Light micrographs of structures in the first category illustrate clearly the distributions of the phases present, but the phases themselves cannot be identified positively. Such identification is done indirectly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
.... below 4.3 Table 16.2 Schematic summary of microstructure development during solidification of cast irons having C.E. below 4.3 Fig. 16.5 Optical micrograph showing growth front of austenite-graphite eutectic into the liquid at the cell-liquid interface. Original magnification: 40...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... Light scattering at an etched pearlite surface showing surface morphology of the ferrite (α) and cementite (Cm) phases Fig. 4.3 Optical micrograph of pearlite. Picral etch. Original magnification: 500 × Reconsider the experiment shown in Fig. 3.4 , where a 0.4% C austenite is cooled...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... for the formation of a plate of martensite and may in fact have a different fine structure than other parts of the plate. An example of surface relief and its relationship to martensitic microstructure is shown in Fig. 5.4 . This series of light micrographs was obtained after a prepolished Fe-0.2C alloy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410113
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... alloy. Source: Ref 7.6 Temperature-induced changes in microstructure are illustrated in Fig. 7.3 , a micrograph taken from a water-quenched specimen of a high-purity Fe-0.2%C alloy. The low carbon content and absence of alloying elements reduced hardenability, and, as a result, allotriomorphic...