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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... Abstract This appendix contains detailed micrographs of nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys selected to illustrate the microstructural features described in this book. micrograph microstructure superalloys Comprising the Micrograph Gallery are selected nickel- and cobalt-base...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... This appendix provides additional information on superalloy microstructures. It includes several micrographs showing metallographic features mentioned in the text but not illustrated elsewhere in the book. It also discusses carbide reactions that occur during heat treating and demonstrates...
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 13.15 SEM micrograph showing K2 carbides (white particles) More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 16.5 Optical micrograph showing growth front of austenite-graphite eutectic into the liquid at the cell-liquid interface. Original magnification: 40× More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 17.15 Micrograph of a 1018 steel after nitrocarburizing at 570 °C (1060 °F) for 3 h and oil quenching. Source: Ref 17.2 , p 425 More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 3.34 Scanning electron micrograph showing typical fracture in AISI 4340 steel. Grain size, 20 μm More
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Published: 01 January 2017
Fig. 3.35 Scanning electron micrograph of fracture area near large sulfide inclusions for AISI 4340 steel. Grain size, 90 μm More
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Published: 01 December 2001
Fig. 1 Typical microstructures of CG irons. (a) Optical micrograph. Etched with nital. (b) SEM micrograph showing true shape of graphite in CG iron. Full deep etch. 395× More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.21 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered electron image) showing the oxide scales formed on the outside diameter of the heat-exchanger tube (from the same batch of tubes that showed surface chromium depletion) exposed to air for 6 months. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.23 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered electron image) showing the oxide scales formed on the outside diameter of Type 321 tube (from supplier A) exposed to air at approximately 620 to 670 °C (1150 to 1240 °F) for 1008 h. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.24 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered image) showing the oxide scales formed on the outside diameter of Type 321 tube (from supplier B) exposed to air at approximately 620 to 670 °C (1150 to 1240 °F) for 1008 hours. EDX analysis was performed to determine the chemical More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.45 Scanning electron micrograph showing the adherent aluminum-rich oxide scale formed on alloy 214 after exposure in flowing air at 1320 °C (2400 °F) for 200 h with the specimen being cycled to room temperature every 24 h. EDX analysis was performed at three different locations, marked More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.50 Scanning electron micrograph showing the early stage of oxidation in air at 1200 °C (2200 °F) for 1 hour for alloy 263, revealing titanium-rich and Cr-Ti oxides on the outermost oxide scale. Area 1: 28.1% Cr, 70.9% Ti, 0.8% Co, 0.2% Ni. Area 2: 57.0% Cr, 36.8% Ti, 2.8% Co, 25% Ni More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.19 Scanning electron micrograph showing the oxide scale of alloy 214 after testing in the dynamic burner rig at 1150 °C (2100 °F) with 30 min cycle. The results of the energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the oxide scale are summarized: 1, aluminum oxide; 2, aluminum More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.20 Scanning electron micrograph showing the oxide scale of alloy MA956 after testing in the dynamic burner rig at 1150 °C (2100 °F) with 30 min cycle. The results of the energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of the oxide scale are summarized: 1, Fe-Al-rich oxide; 2–4 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.22 Optical micrograph showing the cross section of alloy 600 (Ni-16Cr-8Fe) after exposure to the NH 3 -30%H 2 O gas mixture at 500 °C (930 °F) for only 200 h, revealing severe nitridation attack and intergranular cracking. Source: Ref 40 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.24 Optical micrograph showing the cross section of an Fe-18Cr (Sicromal alloy) tested specimen that suffered combination of severe nitridation, oxidation, and intergranular cracking after the exposure to the NH 3 -30%H 2 O gas mixture at 500 °C (930 °F) for 200 h. Source: Ref 40 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.32 Optical micrograph showing extensive internal chromium nitrides that formed in the entire cross section of a wire sample obtained from a Type 314 wire mesh belt in a sintering furnace after service for 2 to 3 months at 1120 °C (2050 °F) in N 2 -10% H 2 . Courtesy of Haynes More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 4.34 Scanning electron micrograph (backscattered image) showing internal chromium nitrides (blocky phases) and aluminum nitrides (long needle-shaped phases) formed in alloy 601, a nickel-base alloy containing about 1.3% Al, after exposure to 100% N 2 at 1090 °C (2000 °F) for 168 h More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 5.40 Microhardness profile and optical micrograph showing severe carburization attack on the 316 specimen with the original as-received surface (solid circle data point) after testing at 649 °C (1200 °F) for 5000 h in He-1500 μatm H 2 -450 μatm CO-50 μatm CH 4 -50 μatm H 2 O. Also shown More