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metallurgical microscope

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the various features of the metallurgical microscope. Key concepts are defined such as resolving power, the virtual image, bright- and dark-field illumination, numerical aperture, focal length, image contrast, depth of field, and spherical and chromatic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Metaphot metallurgical microscope with large stage and 35-mm camera with automatic exposure control. (Courtesy of Nikon, Inc., Instrument Division.) Figure 4-4 Leitz MM6 metallograph. (Courtesy of E. Leitz, Inc.) Figure 4-5 The numerical aperture (NA) of the objective is equal...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... be seen in the SEM and in situ chemical analysis carried out to determine their identity. With this information, the source of the inclusions such as the melting practice can be traced and steps taken to eliminate them. The metallurgical microscope is yet another instrument very useful to the failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and are recommended by the authors. However, the authors realize that other etchants may work just as well as those recommended. The metallographer should keep an open mind and try different etchants and procedures in order to obtain the correct etching response. The metallurgical microscope itself can be used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Metallurgical microscopes differ from biological microscopes primarily in the manner by which the specimen is illuminated. Unlike biological microscopes, metallurgical microscopes must use reflected light. A simplified ray diagram for a metallurgical microscope is shown in Fig. 5 , while a typical inverted...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... 1911 : The metallurgical microscope is commercially available. 1911 : The first electric arc furnace for metal casting is installed at Treadwell Engineering Co., Easton, PA. 1912 : The first muller with individually mounted revolving mullers of varying weights is marketed by Peter L. Simpson...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... after each polishing step. Near the sink, there should be a ventilated etching area. A fume hood is usually required in the etching area. The freshly polished specimens are etched, rinsed, and dried with a heated-air blow dryer. In this area, one needs a metallurgical microscope. Microscopes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
.... The pits that occur on the surfaces of contacting parts as a result of contact stress fatigue seem to have three different types of behavior. Some start as microscopic cavities and may stay microscopic throughout the life of the part. They cause only a dull, frosted appearance on an otherwise bright...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... technique only, requiring hardness attachment to metallurgical microscope. Results subject to errors associated with loading and indentation measurement. Good surface preparation required D.4 Static load D.4.1 Creep. Maintain load on specimen subjected to high temperature (relative) for periods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... pressure across a softer metal cuts the metal, usually causing microscopic distortion of the surface structure and forming a distorted chip or fragment of the metal removed. Another very important characteristic of abrasive wear is the heat that is generated by friction between the two materials. Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... fail, they leave certain distinct tell-tale marks. These marks, when properly documented, can provide the exacting evidence the judiciary is looking for in litigations following such failures. The courts are now depending more and more on the metallurgical profession for making correct decisions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... years for the importance of this work to be recognized. By 1920, metallography had become a necessary part of any metallurgical program. A number of sophisticated tools aid metallurgists in the study of metal structures. These include the electron microscope, electron and x-ray diffraction...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... and small metallographic laboratories. These laboratories are designed to include facilities for sample preparation and microscopes for observing and photographing microstructures. Chapter 5 introduced and described the use of the metallurgical microscope. The microscope is known as a “light” microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... prime in nickel-base superalloys and intergranular corrosion are among the many metallurgical imperfections and undesirable conditions that can be detected and analyzed by microscopic examination of metallographic sections. Figures 11 and 12 illustrate the usefulness of metallographic sectioning...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... iron either softer or harder, metallurgical theory lagged behind until relatively modern times. In 1864 Henry Clifton Sorby first used a microscope to study metals. This was followed by Albert Sauveur trying to convince American steelmakers that something practical was to be gained from microscopic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
.... dislocation theory light microscope metal structure metallography phase diagram precipitation hardening X-ray diffraction The science of metals, unlike that of chemistry and physics, was slow to develop. Early researchers, especially chemists who were developing ideas and techniques for determining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...: Introduction , Metallurgical Failure Analysis , McGraw-Hill , 1993 , p 1 – 72 4. Graham R. , Strategies for Failure Analysis , Adv. Mater. Process. Aug 2004 , p 45 – 50 5. Ryder D.A. , Davies T.J. , Brough I. , and Hutchings F.R. , General Practice in Failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... Administration 9. Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 11 , ASM Handbook , 10th ed. , ASM International , 2002 , p. 690 Selected References Selected References • Beachem C.D. and Warke W.R. , Ed., Fractography: Microscopic Cracking Processes , ASTM , STP 600, 1976...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... by the chemical etching process. As is explained in Chapter 5 , surface relief influences the amount of light that is reflected away from the objective of a metallurgical microscope. The more light that is reflected away, the darker the image. Fig. 2.19 Coarse pearlite in an AISI/SAE 1080 eutectoid steel...