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metallurgical furnaces

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... Abstract The melting furnace is a critically important piece of equipment in a foundry; it influences the balance between the metal required by molding machines and the melting capacity. This chapter presents the features, types, advantages, and applications of furnaces suitable for iron...
Image
Published: 01 December 2003
Fig. 1 Simple schematic arrangement of an ammonia gas nitriding system. A, bulk storage tank; B, gas nitriding furnace; C, gas dissociation test station; D, exhaust to atmosphere. Source: Pye Metallurgical Consulting Inc. More
Image
Published: 01 December 2000
Fig. 4.5 Titanium ingot production. (a) Granules. Courtesy of Oregon Metallurgical Corp. (b) Compacts. Courtesy of IMI Titanium, Ltd. (c) Lowering electrode into furnace. Courtesy of IMI Titanium Ltd. (d) Final ingot. Courtesy of IMI Titanium, Ltd. (e) Welding revert. Courtesy of Howmet More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ceeg.t59370145
EISBN: 978-1-62708-447-5
... weeks at a time, despite the higher melt losses and the cost of emission control. 7.6.3 Cost and Other Factors Influencing Melting Unit Selection The selection of the right kind and the suitable size of furnace depends upon several factors including: Cost factors Metallurgical factors...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... contain ammonia (NH 3 ) and an endothermic gas. Batch furnaces with integral oil quenches are ideally suited for gaseous nitrocarburizing. Development of the Process The gaseous nitrocarburizing process was first developed in 1961 at Joseph Lucas (Industries) Ltd. in England. This treatment...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... or quenched under certain conditions; and, finally, moved out of the quench vessel or furnace. The temperature, and frequently the atmosphere condition, must be controlled precisely in order to achieve the desired metallurgical results. In order to ensure the repeatability of the operation, the heat treating...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
..., quenching, drying, and coil rewind. Unlike batch annealing, CAL processing must consider distortion of the strip due to temperature gradients in the furnace or quench sections. Line speed, thermal profile, and quench media are optimized with distortion of the strip in mind. Metallurgically, differences...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... alloys contain many alloying elements for various metallurgical reasons, such as improving the resistance to a certain mode of high-temperature corrosion, increasing tensile and creep-rupture strengths, or increasing wear resistance. Increasing the levels of some of these alloying elements can increase...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
.... The “add on” kW or Btu’s will depend on the refractory value of the furnace insulation material and total surface area of the furnace and apertures. Process Control and Instrumentation Good process control and management improves: Process repeatability and economics Metallurgical...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... be used for the gas nitriding process. The fluidized-bed furnace is a unique metallurgical processing tool that enables the user to complete most heat treatment processes, including surface treatments. The discussion here focuses on fluidized-bed nitriding. Previous chapters have discussed gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... attention must be paid to these requirements in the design, construction, and operation of furnaces used to heat treat tool steels, especially those used for hardening, where metallurgical factors become all-important. Attempting to reduce production costs by bypassing heat treatment steps will yield an end...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
...-treated steel was found in one of the pyramids, and it is thought to date from 3000 B.C . Early metal workers found certain metals and ores could be refined, processed, and made into tools and weapons, but it was not until the Iron Age and the Hittites that metallurgical processes were developed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... Abstract This chapter discusses the metallurgical considerations and process requirements of nitriding. It presents the pioneering work of Adolph Machlet and Adolph Fry and presents early developments. One such development is the Floe process, a two-stage treatment used to reduce the formation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pnfn.t65900089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-350-8
... At a suitable elevated temperature, usually around 200 °C (400 °F) Why is plasma started at those temperatures? The cold-wall furnace uses a constant dc system, which requires plasma voltages around 600 to 800 V. Mechanical and metallurgical damage to the workpiece surface may occur by processing so close...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... Selected References Selected References • Mehl R.F. , A Brief History of the Science of Metals , American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers , 1948 • Raymond R. , Out of the Fiery Furnace: The Impact of Metals on the History of Mankind , Pennsylvania...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Abstract This chapter, a detailed account of furnaces and related equipment for heat treating, begins by describing three basic modes of heat transmission, namely conduction, convection, and radiation, followed by a discussion on the working principle, applications, advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... not impinge on the metal surface itself but is reradiated off of the walls or the roof of the furnace. Alloying is accomplished through the addition and solution of metallurgical metals and master alloys. Large reverberatory furnaces up to 135 Mg (300,000 lb) capacity are used for melting and/or holding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This appendix is a glossary of terms related to induction heat treating. induction heat treating Copyright © 2015 ASM International® All rights reserved 1appendix www.asminternational.org Metallurgical Definitions for Induction Heat Treating A alternating current (ac...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9