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metallographic techniques

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... is especially good when the image formation/scanning is oriented in a way that the “lighting” (that is, the position of the SE detector) corresponds to the top of the observation screen in the SEM (see the section, “Relief,” in Chapter 4, “Metallographic Technique—Macrography,” in this book). Images created...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... features of the structure. While three-dimensional reconstruction techniques are available and are being used more often, they still require a considerable investment of time and material resources. The first attempt at three-dimensional reconstruction involved the metallographic preparation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... As the metallographer practices this technique, he or she will gain experience in judging which cases the technique can be applied to with good results. As an example, if coarse grain size is to be highlighted, regrinding is not recommended. If, however, one wants to emphasize the dendritic structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... the steps involved in replicating part surfaces. etchants etching metallographic replication microscopic examination sample preparation Several techniques are used to observe the structure of steels and cast irons in the microscopic scale. For many of these techniques, sampling and sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... can be observed using metallographic techniques. It describes, and in many cases illustrates, the characteristic shapes, colors, and optical properties associated with aluminum alloy intermetallic phases and how they can be enhanced through selective etching. It provides an atlas of microstructures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... a significant amount of time to teaching this topic. Furthermore, it is essentially impossible to find an industrial establishment producing or processing steel that does not rely on metallographic techniques at some stage of development, quality control, or failure analysis. 1.1 Steels and Cast Irons...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
cracks (corner of the slab). Macrograph produced using “engraving” technique, for publication (see Chapter 4, “Metallographic Technique—Macrography,” in this book). Courtesy of J. Casey, DOFASCO Canada. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
and the coarser structure of the dendrites is clear in the product with higher superheat. Etching: two stage Humfrey ( Chapter 4, “Metallographic Technique—Macrography,” in this book). Intaglio print. The low sulfur content of this steel makes a sulfur print impossible. The technique improves contrast and makes More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
, “Metallographic Technique—Macrography,” in this book). Intaglio print. The low sulfur content of this steel makes a sulfur print impossible. The low contents of phosphorus and carbon make a conventional macrograph very difficult to evaluate, due to low etching contrast. The technique used improves contrast More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
. of HCl. Etch at room temperature). Intaglio print using ink and press (see Chapter 4, “Metallographic Technique—Macrography,” in this book). The morphological similarity to the iso-concentration profiles presented in Fig. 8.33 is evident. Courtesy of J. Casey, DOFASCO, Canada. More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
dendrites were transformed into pearlite (dark). The transformed ledeburite, between the dendrites, is composed of cementite (white) and pearlite (dark, small dots). Etchant: picral. The different etching behavior of nital and picral on ferrite and cementite, mentioned in Chapter 5, “Metallographic More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
operation (“mirror” element). This special interface can be observed in a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) image (see Chapter 6, “Metallographic Technique: Electron Microscopy and Other Advanced Techniques,” in this book). There is no orientation condition that allows the formation More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... metallographic techniques. Figure 8 shows the microstructures of the strain bar and a typical T-head. Fig. 8 Micrographs documenting the microstructure of the failed strain bar. (a) Section 1-1 from Fig. 4 showing a banded structure (670 μm). (b) Location A, retainer ring groove (300 μm). (c) Section...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter explains how to achieve accurate, sharp delineation of the microstructure of metals using appropriate etching and contrasting techniques. It covers a variety of methods, including chemical etching, heat tinting, gas contrasting, vapor deposition, magnetic etching, ion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... that deserve attention in the performance of metallographic exams, regardless of the technique in question, are presented. Basic suggestions on how to report the results of these investigations are also given. The main objective of these suggestions is to make sure that once prepared, reports will be clear...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... interested in observing the structure without recording it on film, sample preparation can be simplified without altering the results if one has a thorough understanding of the potential problem areas. In this chapter, the techniques used to prepare metallographic samples for light microscopy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tstap.t56040030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-428-4
... Abstract This article presents best practices for the metallographic preparation of specimens produced via thermal spray coating methods. It outlines typical metallographic preparation process flow, highlighting important considerations for obtaining a clear and representative specimen suitable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to 3.5 kgf As D.3.1 but primarily used on metallographically prepared surfaces to determine hardness of individual microstructural features Rapid technique that may aid in differentiating microstructural features and in determining extent of local hardening (e.g., by plastic deformation) Laboratory...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.dmlahtc.t60490183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-340-9
... techniques, and primary failure mechanisms expected (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="t60490183-ref20">Ref 20</xref>) Table 5.5. Equipment areas to be evaluated in a boiler, inspection techniques, and primary failure mechanisms expected ( Ref 20 ) Boiler area Tube samples required Boat samples...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... of microstructure and gives instructions on how to employ proper techniques to reveal microstructure, that is, the techniques of metallography. In this book we, of course, restrict our attention to the metallography of iron and steel. The Metallographer What is a metallographer? In general terms...