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metallographic equipment

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
...Abstract Abstract This appendix is a compilation of tables helpful to metallographers in characterizing irons and steels. The tables include AISI/SAE designations and specific composition ranges for various steels and irons, listings of companies that sell metallographic equipment and supplies...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter describes the methods and equipment applicable to metallographic studies and discusses the preparation of specimens for examination by light optical microscopy. Five major operations for preparation of metallographic specimens are discussed: sectioning, mounting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., and equipment used to perform these procedures. References References 1. Miley D.V. and Calabra A.E. , A Review of Specimen Mounting Methods for Metallography , Metallographic Specimen Preparation , McCall J.L. and Mueller W.M. , Ed., Plenum Press , 1974 , p 1 – 40...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... analysis. An image analysis system can be justified when large numbers of grain size and volume fraction measurements are required. Chapter 4 introduced the basic equipment required for typical large and small metallographic laboratories. These laboratories are designed to include facilities for sample...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... to cut or shear a metallographic specimen from the submitted piece. Usually, the specimen should be small enough to fit into a 25.4 or 31.8 mm (1 or 1.25 in.) diameter mount. The equipment in this area includes a band saw and/or a hack saw. Also, an abrasive cut-off machine is useful to obtain a damage...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... of Nikon, Inc., Instrument Division.) Figure 4-4 Leitz MM6 metallograph. (Courtesy of E. Leitz, Inc.) Figure 4-1 Schematic illustrating characteristics of light waves, (a) the amplitude is a measure of light intensity; as the amplitude (α 1 , or α 2 ) increases, brightness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... the failure is recorded. There are also situations where it is essential to perform failure analyses on the site. While it is recommended that examination be done in a laboratory, the requirements for on-site testing may involve the use of portable laboratories with metallographic equipment for grinding...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... (Buehler Ltd. cloths shown), 60 ×. Figure 2-22 (Part 2) Appearance of commonly used polishing cloths (Buehler Ltd. cloths shown), 60 ×. Figure 2-18 Example of a commercially available polishing table equipped with two 8-in wheels and a sink. (Courtesy of Leco Corp.) Figure 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... Fig. 21 Arrangement of major components of portable metallographic laboratory for grinding and polishing. Equipment for examination and photography are also available. Image courtesy of Buehler Ltd. Fig. 3 Origin (at arrow) of a single-load brittle fracture that initiated at a small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... to determine the ferrite content of austenitic steel weldments provides information of limited value compared with a metallographic examination). (Ferrography requires specialized equipment.) B.2 Electrical resistance Application of known DC or high-frequency AC current and measurement of resulting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... guidelines for conducting metallographic evaluations and offers suggestions on how to effectively report the results. It explains how the approach depends on the objective of the evaluation, which is usually to measure a structural feature, test a hypothesis, or investigate structure-related effects...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... describes the steps involved in replicating part surfaces. etchants etching metallographic replication microscopic examination sample preparation Several techniques are used to observe the structure of steels and cast irons in the microscopic scale. For many of these techniques, sampling...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Abstract This chapter discusses the important aspects that a metallographer should understand in order to effectively reveal a microstructure. It begins by exploring etching response and how it can be a tool for revealing various microstructural features. The next part of the chapter discusses methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
.... high-strength steel aerospace components full-scale fatigue testing nondestructive testing failure analysis STEEL has limited use in modern aircraft, but it is used in landing gear systems, arrestment systems for naval aircraft, and for support equipment. Because of the high strength levels...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...) are inhaled. Sectioning, grinding, and polishing operations that produce dusts or fumes should be performed under adequately vented hoods equipped with special filters. Metallographic preparation equipment and laboratory work surfaces should be damp wiped periodically to prevent accumulation of dry particles...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
.... Because all of the principles described in this chapter for the metallurgical microscope apply to the metallograph, no further description is needed here. Many modern metallurgical microscopes are equipped with excellent camera accessories, and a metallograph may not be needed for many metallographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and environmental risks. It is not the purpose of this text to discuss these risks, but the reader is cautioned not to start any metallographic preparation before completely familiarizing him- or herself with the risks, required safety equipment, proper protection measures, and correct measures to dispose...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... ). The examination of polished (unetched) metallographic specimens is highly recommended for determining the nature of SCC. Although it is possible to observe cracks on the surfaces of specimens or plant equipment, it is usually good practice to supplement visual inspection with nondestructive inspection. Visual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430409
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... Flattening Test 8.4.11 Evaluation of Chemical Deposits 8.4.12 Replication and Metallography 8.4.13 Accelerated Creep Rupture Test 8.5.1 Hardness-Based Approach 8.5.2 Method Based on Allowable Reduction of Tube Wall Thickness 8.5.3 Oxide Scale Thickness Method 8.5.4 Metallographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Hillert. Source: Ref 18 Fig. 12.34 (a) In a steel part, punching was used to mark in relief BRASOKT 2006. The marking was completely removed by grinding. In (b) after metallographic preparation and etching with Fry’s etchant, the cold deformation associated with the marking is revealed...