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metallic crystals

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
...Abstract Abstract Deformation within a crystal lattice is governed principally by the presence of dislocations, which are two-dimensional defects in the lattice structure. Slip from shear stress is the most common deformation mechanism within crystalline lattices of metallic materials, although...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides a detailed overview of the crystal structure of metals. It describes primary bonding mechanisms, space lattices and crystal systems, unit cell parameters, slip systems, and crystallographic planes and directions as well as plastic deformation mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... increases. In 1 metal bcc transforms to fcc as temperature increases. Characteristics of the seven different crystal systems Table 1 Characteristics of the seven different crystal systems Crystal system Edge length Interaxial angle Triclinic a ≠ b ≠ c α ≠ β ≠ γ ≠ 90° Monoclinic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... in the crystal structure of metals and their role in mechanical deformation, annealing, precipitation, and diffusion. It describes the concept of solid solutions and the effect of temperature on solubility and phase transformations. The chapter also discusses the formation of solidification structures, the use...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... can exist as single crystals, they are more commonly polycrystalline solids with crystalline grains of repeating atomic packing sequences. Periodic crystalline order is the equilibrium structure of all solid metals. Crystalline structures are a dominant factor in determining mechanical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... Deformation in a metal crystal. When a crystal structure is stressed, the atomic bonds stretch or contract as shown. (a) Portion of unstrained lattice crystal. (b) Lattice deformed elastically. (c) Slip deformation. (d) Example of dislocation with extra row of atoms above the slip plane. (e) Slip...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... ] Abstract Abstract This chapter explains the basic terminology and principles of metallurgy as they apply to extrusion. It begins with an overview of crystal structure in metals and alloys, including crystal defects and orientation. This is followed by sections discussing the development...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the most important defects is the line or edge dislocation. The existence of line defects in crystals, called dislocations, provides the mechanism that allows mechanical deformation. A crystalline metal without dislocations, although extremely strong, would also be extremely brittle and practically useless...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.bcp.t52230131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-298-3
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the properties and applications of beryllium intermetallic compounds. It describes the crystal structure of key beryllides, the metals they contain, and important properties such as high-temperature strength, thermal conductivity and expansion, oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... for a given metal-environment system usually can only be inferred. It goes on to describe how such curves are constructed, demonstrating the procedures for a wide range of alloys and environments. The examples also show how factors such as alloy concentration, crystal lattice orientation, temperature...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... Al 7 Cr, Al 13 Cr 2 , θ 4 , 5 , 7 , 8 θ Cr Al 3 Cr, ν ν Cr Al 9 Cr 4 , αAl 9 Cr 4 , βAl 9 Cr 4 , γAl 9 Cr 4 α Cr , β Cr , γ Cr Al 8 Cr 5 , αAl 8 Cr 5 , βAl 8 Cr 5 8 , 10 , 11 … Characteristics of the crystal lattice of intermetallic phases in the Al-Cr system...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730037
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... is that the rate of movement of ions in solids is much slower than in liquids. Increases of both temperature and impurity content increase conduction in ionic crystals. The difference between metals, semiconductors, and insulators can be understood in terms of the energy levels of the outer electrons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
...) or hypereutectic (phosphorus) silicon crystals. The microstructure images reveal the as-cast state of gravity castings made in sand and metal molds, before and after modification. The chapter also provides composition data and includes callouts identifying various phase constituents in the interdendritic eutectic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ciktmse.t56020013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-389-8
... in different crystal structures, the ability to predict the movement of dislocations, the influence of impurities on defects, the relationship between gain size and material properties, the identification of specific types of defects, the selection of compatible metals for vacuum environments, and the effect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ems.t53730001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-283-9
... are arranged in repeating three-dimensional patterns or lattices. The smallest characteristic piece of the repeating pattern is called the unit cell. In metal, crystal atoms are in contact with each other. Most crystal structures are either the densest way of packing spheres or almost the densest. Most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240625
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... of the six faces. The bcc and fcc structures are extremely important in metallurgy, with approximately 90% of industrially important metals crystallizing into one of these two structures. B.1.1 Simple Cubic System B.1.2 Body-Centered Cubic System B.1.3 Face-Centered Cubic System Another...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... single-load fracture FROM A FUNDAMENTAL STANDPOINT, there are only two modes, or ways, in which metals can fracture under single, or monotonic, loads: shear and cleavage. These two modes differ primarily in the way in which the basic metal crystal structure behaves under load. Because most...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.9781627082518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... description of relevant steel grades ( Ref 2.5 ). Carbon Steels Alloy Steels Bake-Hardenable (BH) Steels High-Strength, Low-Alloy (HSLA) Steels Stainless Steels Advanced High-Strength Steels Metals are made of crystals that have imperfections such as vacancies, interstitials...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... and often exhibit active behavior; however, in some important environments they form stable, passive films. The important characteristics of metals and solutions that determine the type of behavior observed are discussed in the following sections of this chapter. Crystal Structure Grain Boundaries...