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metal penetration

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Image
Published: 01 January 2022
Fig. 12.141 Potential causes for metal penetration More
Image
Published: 01 April 2013
Fig. 19 Incomplete penetration of filler metal (BAg-1) in a brazed joint between copper components. 20×. Source: Ref 1 More
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 3.53 Oxidation penetration (metal loss + internal attack) as a function of test temperature for 1 year in air for a variety of commercial alloys. Source: Ref 15 More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.48 The metal loss and internal penetration for nickel-base alloys (alloys 214, 600, and 601) and cobalt-base alloys (alloys 25 and 188) along with Fe-Ni-Co-Cr alloy (alloy 556), Fe-Ni-Cr alloy (alloy 800H), and Type 310SS tested in Ar-5.5O 2 -1HCl-1SO 2 at 900 °C (1650 °F) for 800 h More
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Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 6.52 Corrosion rates in terms of metal loss and internal penetration for nickel- and cobalt-base alloys at 900 °C (1650 °F) in Ar-4HCl-4H 2 . Data was based on 8 h tests. Source: Ref 35 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... inspection. Casting defects including porosity, oxide films, inclusions, hot tears, metal penetration, and surface defects are reviewed. Liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and leak testing for castings...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... Abstract This article describes the weldability tests that are used to evaluate the effects of welding on such properties and characteristics as base-metal and weld-metal cracking; base-metal and weld-metal ductility; weld penetration; and weld pool shape and fluid flow. It also describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
...: Particles of surface oxides that have not melted and are mixed into the weld metal Lack of fusion (LOT): A condition in which fusion is less than complete Lack of penetration (LOP): A condition in which joint penetration is less than that specified Craters: Depressions at the termination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... metals and the types of flaws exhibited by brazed joints. brazed joints brazing filler metals eddy current inspection liquid penetrant inspection magnetic particle inspection nondestructive inspection radiographic inspection ultrasonic inspection visual inspection welding weldments...
Image
Published: 01 November 2007
Fig. 11.13 Tube wastage data, which included both metal loss (tube thickness loss) and total wastage (metal loss+intergranular penetration), for ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels in terms of chromium concentration in alloys. The data were generated in a boiler at Bromborough More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Oxidation usually dominates high-temperature corrosion reactions, but under certain conditions, some alloys may be affected by nitridation as well. This chapter explains why nitridation occurs and how it attacks various metals, in some cases, penetrating deeper than oxidation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract Corrosion failures of welds can occur even when the proper base metal and filler metal have been selected, industry codes and standards have been followed, and welds have been deposited that possess full weld penetration and have proper shape and contour. This chapter describes some...
Image
Published: 01 November 2011
Fig. 2.12 Effect of polarity on gas tungsten arc welding weld configuration when using direct current: (a) direct current electrode negative (DCEN), deep penetration, narrow melted area, approximate 30% heat in electrode and 70% heat in base metal; (b) direct current electrode positive (DCEP More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.jub.t53290023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-306-5
.../64 in.), and 3.2 mm (1/8 in.) diameters. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is the most widely used shielding gas. Two advantages of this gas are its low cost and deep weld penetration. The gas mixture most commonly employed is 75% CO 2 and 25% Ar. Weld metal deposited with this mixture generally has higher...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... subsurface flaws. Liquid penetrant and eddy current inspection can be used to inspect ferrous and nonferrous metals, while magnetic particle inspection is restricted to materials that can be magnetized. Both magnetic particle and eddy current inspection can be automated. In the case of automated eddy current...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... surface flaws; therefore, one or more additional methods are required for locating internal flaws. For example, many forgings for aerospace applications are inspected with liquid penetrants (or with magnetic particles, depending on the metal composition) for locating surface flaws, then by ultrasonics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... features that are causes for rejection include: Underbead cracks Gas porosity Inclusions—slag, oxides, or tungsten metal Incomplete fusion Inadequate penetration Failure to meet strength requirements is another cause for rejection of weldments. Details of test methods for welds...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... Abstract This chapter provides an overview of the various inspection methods used with metals and alloys, namely visual inspection, coordinate measuring machines, machine vision, hardness testing, tensile testing, chemical analysis, metallography, and nondestructive testing. The nondestructive...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Internal bursts produce a sharp reflection; able to differentiate types of bursts Magnetic particle testing Surface and near-surface bursts only of ferromagnetic materials Cold shuts (casts) Liquid penetrant inspection Surfaces of most metals; smooth regular line; casts difficult x-radiography...
Image
Published: 01 December 2018
Fig. 6.163 Close-up view of ID surfaces showing puncture located at fusion zone of the butt weld. Uneven weld penetration forming nonuniform ridges at the weld line are shown. The weld metal had excess penetration (as shown by arrow). More