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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... heat-transfer mechanisms (stages) from the hot metal to the cooler vaporizable liquid quenchant Fig. 12 Cooling curves illustrating the effect of temperature and quench severity (cooling power) Fig. 15 Comparison of time-temperature transformation diagrams for AISI (a) 1045, (b...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-machining steel. Unetched (as-polished). Original magnification 500×. Source: Ref 9 Abstract This chapter describes the designations of carbon and low-alloy steels and their general characteristics in terms of their response to hardening and mechanical properties. The steels covered are low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... Water Brine None 0 0 0.02 0.20–0.30 0.9–1.0 2.0 Mild 15 50 … 0.20–0.35 1.0–1.1 2.1 Moderate 30 100 … 0.35–0.40 1.2–1.3 … Good 61 200 0.05 0.40–0.60 1.4–2.0 … Strong 230 750 … 0.60–0.80 1.6–2.0 4.0 Fig. 4 Plot of end-quench test results for five...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.9781627083263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... microstructures and poor mechanical properties. Under some conditions of insufficient austenitizing, cracking is likely to occur. When austenitizing hypoeutectoid and eutectoid steels, the general practice is to heat to a temperature of at least 28 °C (50 °F) and more often nearer 55 °C (100 °F) above the Ac 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... energies (SFEs) Metal SFE, mJ/m 2 Brass <10 Austenitic stainless steel <10 Silver 20–25 Gold 50–75 Copper 80–90 Nickel 130–200 Aluminum 200–250 Fig. 12 Comparison of (a) slip and (b) twinning deformation mechanisms over a length, l , under shear stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... °F). As a rule, such treatments result in a structure of fine pearlite, which has good mechanical properties even though martensite is not formed. The extent of hardening, as detailed in preceding chapters, depends on carbon and the percentage of martensite. With 50% martensite, the band of as...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... steelmaking, when the molten metal is first poured into molds, it becomes, on cooling, either an ingot or a casting. Use of the term ingot is reserved for furnace output in molded form destined for shaping into a marketable material by mechanical working, such as rolling or forging. Steels processed in this...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... followed by cooling at a suitable rate, used primarily to soften metallic materials, but also to simultaneously produce desired changes in their properties or microstructure. The purpose of such changes may be, but is not confined to, improving machinability, changing mechanical or electrical properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... in relatively small quantities and in relatively small batches, or heats. They are made and processed to meet extremely high standards of quality control. They are subjected to rigorous inspection and testing before being shipped from the mill. Because of their high cost, tool steels are...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... at lower temperatures and the subsequent manipulation of carbide formation during cooling. Moreover, when austenitized steel is rapidly cooled (quenched), it produces a different mechanism of phase transformation. During rapid quenching from austenite to ferrite, there is not enough time for the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
..., sometimes attaining the specified microstructural and mechanical properties requires heat treatment in addition to the as-cast thermal cycle. Some types of iron castings also are routinely heat treated as a regular part of their production process. For example, malleable iron castings are subjected to a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... hardness value at the fire side was because of deterioration in the microstructure due to the higher operating temperature of the tube facing fire side. Additionally, tensile testing of the tube sample further confirmed the poor mechanical properties of the tube material in regard to its 0.2% proof...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... also discusses the concepts of hardenability, critical diameter, quench severity, and Jominy testing. annealing carburizing normalizing quenching steel tempering hardenability Jominy testing quench cracking The aim of this chapter is to discuss the main conventional heat treatments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 May 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hma.t59250059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-287-7
... steels, providing information on hardening, transformation of austenite, hardenability testing, and tempering of as-quenched martensite. austenite transformation automobile industry chromium steels hardenability testing hardening nickel steels nickel-chromium alloy steels tempering...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.hpcspa.t54460121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-285-3
... an inherent aspect of the cold spray coating evaluation process. Characterization of the as-sprayed microstructures enables the development of an understanding of the thermomechanical evolution of the coating and elucidates the bonding mechanisms both within the coating and at the coating-substrate...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... effect of service usage can be measured directly. May reveal failure mechanism. Little or no specimen preparation is required. Equipment is often portable for use in field. Labor costs are usually low, especially for repetitive testing of similar parts. Limitations Results often must...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... Abstract This chapter presents a step-by-step approach for analyzing the causes of nonconforming workpieces and determining potential solutions. The discussion covers a wide range of issues, including testing errors, latent and process-related defects, examination and testing techniques, defect...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... procedures to be followed when nonconforming product is found Schedules for calibration of test equipment Schedules and procedures for record retention Identification of training needed and implementation of training programs Systems for control of documentation, including review and distribution...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
..., along with the metallurgical aspects. There are several methods for measuring or evaluating the results of the physical properties produced as a result of heat treating, such as tension testing, impact testing, bend testing, and various types of shear testing...