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material extrusion

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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 3.47 Material flow (extrusion stages) in indirect hot extrusion without a shell and without lubrication of CuZn42 billets with container diam D 0 = 110 mm More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 3.9 Material flow zones in direct hot extrusion without lubrication and without a shell. A, primary deformation zone; B, secondary deformation zone; C, friction affected peripheral zone; D, dead metal zone; E, billet core; a, container; b, die; c, die holder; d, dummy block; e, stem; f More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 3.31 Principal material flow in direct hot extrusion with lubrication without a shell More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 3.44 Material flow in indirect extrusion with a shell (a) V = 70 and (b) V = 30. AlMg3, container diam = 140 mm, container temperature = billet temperature = 450 °C [ Sie 76a ], [ Zie 73 ] More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 3.48 Material flow in indirect hot extrusion without a shell and without lubrication. (a) Material AlMg3; extrusion ratio V ges = 50; initial billet length l b = 500 mm; container diam D 0 = 140 mm. (b) Principal depiction of billet zones in indirect extrusion without lubrication More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 5.74 Load variation in the extrusion of powder and spray compacted material compared with cast (Al18SiCuMgNi), indirectly extruded. 1, cast; 2, spray compacted; 3, compacted powder [ Mue 93 ] More
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Published: 01 December 2006
Fig. 3.67 Hydrostatic pressure against the extrusion ratio for different materials (Source: ASEA). 1, high speed steel; 2, mild steel; 3, soft unalloyed mild steel; 4, commercial copper (Cu 99.5%); 5, aluminum alloy 7075; 6, pure aluminum (Al 99.5) More
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... Abstract This chapter begins with a description of the requirements of tooling and tooling material for hot extrusion. It covers the processes of designing tool and die sets for direct and indirect extrusion. Next, the chapter provides information on extrusion tooling and die sets for direct...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... spectrum of materials to be extruded. This chapter focuses on the processes involved in the extrusion of semifinished products in various metals and their alloys, namely tin, lead, lead-base soft solders, tin-base soft solders, zinc, magnesium, aluminum, copper, titanium, zirconium, iron, nickel...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... Abstract This chapter discusses the basic differences between direct and indirect extrusion, the application of plastic theory, the significance of strain and strain rate, friction, and pressure, and factors such as alloy flow stress and extrusion ratio, which influence the quality of material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... section reviews principles, variations, thermal conditions, axial load calculation, material flow, and applications of direct extrusion and indirect extrusion, with examples provided for extrusion of aluminum and copper alloys. Next, the chapter focuses on the process principles, advantages...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.atia.t59340375
EISBN: 978-1-62708-427-7
... compared with competing materials: Extrusions and rolled products offer design flexibility to facilitate construction, particularly in the areas of forming and joining. Most products can be supplied prefinished or used bare to eliminate the expense and time for builders to apply surface treatments...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... profiles, and the processing of composite materials, as well as the extrusion of metal powders, are discussed. The chapter ends with a discussion on the factors that define the extrudability of metallic materials and how these attributes are characterized. aluminum alloys billets casting defects...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stmflw.t59390284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-459-8
..., material flow, friction, die wear, heat generation, and lubrication requirements. The chapter also provides information on hydrostatic, friction-assisted, and severe plastic deformation extrusion processes, discusses the cause of instabilities and defects, and explains how to select and apply lubricants...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... extrusion process has a direct influence on the accuracy of the shape and the surface finish of extrusion. The friction between the die/material interface may vary in a complicated manner when metal is flowing through the die opening. The wear process in the die bearing is dependent on the thermodynamics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
..., the other relating minimum wall thickness with circumscribing circle diameter. It then explains how oxides on either the billet or container complicate the control of extrusion as well as auxiliary processes and how material flow and the movement of trapped gasses in different regions of the extrusion can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... an excellent study using numerical methods to calculate the nonsteady-state temperature distribution in extrusion through conical dies. They included the temperature dependencies of the flow stress and of the thermal constants of the billet and the tool materials into the analysis. The researchers considered...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 February 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.chffa.t51040211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-300-3
... Abstract This chapter discusses the process of cold forging and its effect on various materials. It describes billet preparation and lubrication procedures, cold upsetting techniques, and the use of slab analysis for estimating cold forging loads. It likewise describes extrusion processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ex2.t69980001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-342-3
... as the extrusion ratio. It usually falls in the range 10 to 100. In special cases—for example, brass wire—the extrusion ratio can be as high as 1000. However, this requires the material’s being extruded to have a low flow stress in addition to a high specific press pressure of up to 1000 N/mm 2 . Extrusion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
..., and material, and the surface treatments of die bearings and tribology in extrusion dies. Terminology and Functions of Extrusion Dies and Tooling Direct Extrusion Soft and Medium Grade Alloy Extrusion In hot extrusion of aluminum alloys, flat-face dies are generally used. The definition of a flat...