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martensitic transformation

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The formation of martensite is characterized by its athermal transformation kinetics, crystallographic features, and development of fine structure. This chapter describes the diffusionless, shear-type transformation of austenite to martensite and how it affects the morphology and microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... Abstract This chapter examines two important strengthening mechanisms, martensitic and bainitic transformations, both of which occur under nonequilibrium cooling conditions. It explains how time-temperature-transformation diagrams are constructed and how they are used to understand and control...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... free energy that governs whether or not a phase transformation is possible, and then the kinetic considerations that determine the rate at which transformations take place. The chapter also describes important solid-state transformations such as spinodal decomposition and martensitic transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the isothermal transformation of austenite to pearlite, bainite, martensite, proeutectoid ferrite, and proeutectoid cementite. It describes the transformation mechanisms in eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, and hypereutectoid steels, the factors that influence nucleation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... (TRIP) steels are one of the newest and interesting materials developed by the steel industry. They are characterized by their excellent strength and high ductility. Transformation-induced plasticity refers to a deformation mechanism where soft retained austenite is transformed into hard martensite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... heat treatment of titanium alloys, it is necessary to first understand the transformations that can occur. For example, the high-temperature beta phase can undergo a thermal decomposition to titanium martensites or omega. Also, the beta phase can decompose by a nucleation-and-growth process to form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... microstructure also plays a great role in heating. A finely distributed structure such as tempered martensite is more rapidly transformed to austenite than, for instance, a ferritic-pearlitic structure. This is particularly true for alloyed steels with carbide-forming alloying elements such as chromium and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...-controlled transformations, and thereby produce martensitic microstructures of maximum hardness. References 10.1 Krauss G. and Libsch J.F. , Phase Diagrams in Ceramic, Glass and Metal Technology , Alper A.M. , Ed., Academic Press , New York , 1970 10.2 Atlas...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... verify whether a quenchant can cool a workpiece fast enough to achieve martensitic transformation without cracking or distortion. induction heat treating quenchants quenching WHEN INDUCTION HARDENING, the workpieces are cooled by surrounding, spraying, or immersing the part in a quenchant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... traps carbon atoms that do not have time to diffuse out of the transforming face-centered cubic (fcc) to body-centered cubic (bcc) crystal structure. This martensitic transformation begins during cooling when the austenite reaches the martensite start temperature (M s ). As the temperature is decreased...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... stainless steels phase structure thermal processing References 1 Koistinen D.R. , Marburger R.E. , “ A General Equation Prescribing the Extent of the Austenite/Martensite Transformation in Pure Iron ,” Acta Met , Vol 7 , 1959 , p 59 10.1016/0001-6160(59)90170-1...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... fact, because of the high silicon content, was associated with the formation of nontraditional bainitic microstructures. High manganese contents, and small additions of chromium and molybdenum, promote intermediate temperature transformation at cooling rates between ferrite/pearlite and martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... cooling necessary for the austenite-to-martensite transformation traps the hydrogen in a state of supersaturation in the martensite. Because the solubility of hydrogen in body-centered crystal martensite is low and diffusivity is high, austenitic filler metals are often selected to weld martensitic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Abstract The properties of martensite and the mechanisms that govern its formation are the key to understanding hardness and the hardenability of carbon steel. Martensite is a transformation product of austenite that requires rapid cooling to suppress diffusion-dependent transformation pathways...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... Abstract This chapter examines the isothermal phase transformations of the iron-carbide system. The discussion includes the formation of ferritic, eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, hypereutectoid, bainitic, and martensitic microstructures as well as their properties, composition, and metallurgy. The...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... temperature. During the second quench, any austenite still present is transformed to martensite, which appears light after etching in standard reagents. As the eutectoid transformation products are dark etching in these reagents, their volume fraction can be measured accurately by quantitative metallographic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... this chapter, bainite and martensite—out of equilibrium (or metastable) constituents —as well as the controversy on bainite formation mechanisms and its micro-structural classification are briefly presented. It is important to know that depending on the conditions under which austenite transforms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... colonies of pearlite (dark) in eutectoid steel. Remainder of microstructure is martensite formed in austenite not transformed to pearlite at the reaction temperature. Original magnification at 250×. Courtesy of A.R. Marder and B. Bramfitt, Bethlehem Steel Corp., Bethlehem, PA Johnson and Mehl ( Ref...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... at 870 °C (1600 °F). U 3 Si twinned martensite is colored; untransformed U 3 Si remains uncolored. Source: Ref 8.19 as published in Ref 8.1 The material for this chapter came from “ Invariant Transformation Structures ,” in Metallography and Microstructures , Vol 9, ASM Handbook , ASM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
...: Ref 3 The transformation of martensite from austenite is a nonequilibrium (athermal) process that occurs during rapid cooling from the austenite phase. Unlike the phase transformation from atomic diffusion at equilibrium temperatures, the martensitic transformation occurs when many atoms...