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martensitic microstructure

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
...Abstract Abstract Steels with martensitic and tempered martensitic microstructures, though sometimes perceived as brittle, exhibit plasticity and ductile fracture behavior under certain conditions. This chapter describes the alloying and tempering conditions that produce a ductile form...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Most steels that are hardened are subjected to a subcritical heat treatment referred to as tempering. Tempering improves the toughness of as-quenched martensitic microstructures but lowers strength and hardness. This chapter describes the microstructural changes that occur during tempering...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the isothermal phase transformations of the iron-carbide system. The discussion includes the formation of ferritic, eutectoid, hypoeutectoid, hypereutectoid, bainitic, and martensitic microstructures as well as their properties, composition...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
... their ductility and relieve quenching stresses. During tempering, martensitic microstructures supersaturated with carbon decompose into a more stable, ductile form. This chapter discusses the transformations associated with the tempering process and their effect on ductility as well as other properties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... The formation of martensite is characterized by its athermal transformation kinetics, crystallographic features, and development of fine structure. This chapter describes the diffusionless, shear-type transformation of austenite to martensite and how it affects the morphology and microstructure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
.... Source: Adapted from Ref 8.7 Fig. 8.1 Microstructure of martensite. Source: Ref 8.1 Fig. 8.2 Location of martensitic (MS) steels in the tensile strength-elongation space. Source: Ref 8.2 Abstract Abstract Martensitic steels are produced by quenching carbon steel from...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... to the kinetics and stabilization of martensite transformation are also covered. It briefly reviews selected aspects of the changes that evolve during tempering. austenite transformation hardenability hardness heat treatment high-carbon steel Jominy curves martensite transformation microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ahsssta.t53700263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-279-2
... for microstructure constituents Table 17.2 Strength-ductility relationships for microstructure constituents Constituent Ultimate tensile strength, MPa (ksi) Uniform true strain Ferrite 300 (44) 0.30 Austenite 640 (93) 0.60 Martensite 2000 (290) 0.08 Source: Ref 17.3 Fig...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410439
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... states that the lower the hardness and strength, the higher are the ductility and toughness of a microstructure. However, embrittlement phenomena are exceptions to this rule, and tempered martensite embrittlement, for example, lowers ductility and toughness as hardness and strength decrease within...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... is low, and severe brine or water quenching is required to produce martensitic microstructures (hence the term water hardening to describe this type of steel). Despite rapid quenching, the water-hardening tool steels may harden only to shallow depths. In some applications, such as cold header dies...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
..., 0.8% Mn, 0.55% Ni, 0.5% Cr, 0.2% Mo) after heat treatment (954 °C, or 1750 °F, for 1 h, water quench) Fig. 4 High-carbon martensite (0.8% C). Etched with nital Fig. 5 Microstructure of quenched 1.3% C steel. Dark needles of plate martensite and white areas of retained austenite...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
.... , Microstructural and Kinetic Studies of Reverse Transformation in a Low Carbon Alloy Steel , New Aspects of Martensitic Transformation , Japan Institute of Metals , 1976 , p 363 – 367 8.13 Watanabe S. , Ohmori Y. , and Kunitake T. , Formation of Austenite from Lath-Like Martensite , New...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... the Grossmann-Bain approach or Jominy end-quench testing. It also explains how hardenability can be improved through the addition of boron, phosphorus, and other alloys. Grossmann-Bain approach hardenability hardness Jominy test martensite A MARTENSITIC MICROSTRUCTURE is the hardest...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... well where moderate strengths and hardness are required and impact toughness is not a major factor in application. As-quenched martensitic microstructures start with much higher hardness levels, and when tempered back to typical hardness ranges produced in direct cooled microalloyed steels, i.e., HRC...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
..., hardened microstructures will consist primarily of martensite with little retained austenite. Fig. 13-2 IT diagram for H10 steel containing 0.40% C, 1.00% Si, 0.55% Mn, 3.25% Cr, 2.50% Mo, and 0.33% V. Courtesy of Crucible Steel Co. Fig. 13-3 IT diagram for H11 steel containing 0.38% C...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... (at.%) showing accommodating martensite groupings. Source: Ref 15.15 as published in Ref 15.13 Fig. 15.17 Microstructure of lath martensite in an Fe-0.2C alloy after tempering at 700 °C (1290 °F) for 2 h. Nital etch. Original magnification: 500×. Source: Ref 15.8 as published in Ref 15.3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410277
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... provide brittle fracture paths for quench cracking or brittle fracture where the balance of the microstructure is martensitic. Figure 13.3 shows an example of grain-boundary cementite formation in a hardened 52100 steel and the resulting intergranular fracture along grain-boundary cementite ( Ref 13.4...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... and Lower Bainitic Microstructures in a 4150 Steel , J. Mater. Eng. Perform. , Vol 2 ( No. 2 ), 1993 , p 255 – 263 10.1007/BF02660294 AT TEMPERATURES between those at which the eutectoid transformation of austenite to pearlite and the transformation of austenite to martensite occur, a variety...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... of Hardened Hypereutectoid Steels , Microstructure and Residual Stress Effects on the Properties of Case Hardened Steels , TMS-AIME , 1984 20. Roberts C.S. , Effect of Carbon on the Volume Fractions and Lattice Parameters of Retained Austenite and Martensite , Trans. AIME , Vol 197 , 1953...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900045
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... steels. The high carbon and alloy contents of tool steels are used to produce very high strength and hardness by the formation of crystalline phases such as martensite and various carbides. The phases are arranged into microstructures by solidification or powder processing, hot rolling, and heat...