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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... Abstract Many companies conduct only metallurgical evaluations in the wake of failures, discovering nothing more than the physical mechanism by which the failure occurred. The origin of failures, however, is often complex, involving not only physical mechanisms, but also human behavior and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Aluminum is protected by a barrier oxide film that, if damaged, reforms immediately in most environments. Despite this inherent corrosion resistance, there are conditions where aluminum alloys, like many materials, are subject to the effects of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). This...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Moore's Law has driven many degree circuit features below the resolving capability of optical microscopy. Yet the optical microscope remains a valuable tool in failure analysis. This article describes the physics governing resolution and useful techniques for extracting the small...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Abstract Many defects generate excessive heat during operation; this is due to the power dissipation associated with the excess current flow at the defect site. There are several thermal detection techniques for failure analysis and this article focuses on infrared thermography with lock-in...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... capabilities of many key optoelectronic failure analysis tools. The final section describes the common steps that should be followed so as to assure product reliability of optoelectronic components. failure analysis light emitting diodes optoelectronic devices product reliability semiconductor lasers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, limits their use in many applications. Environmental factors can be classified into two categories: chemical and physical effects. This article discusses the effects of these environmental...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
...) objectively and clearly identifying all possible root causes, (4) evaluating the likelihood of each root cause, and (5) converging on the most likely root cause(s). Many failure investigations stop at this point, but significant value is provided in the next four steps, which are (6) identifying all possible...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... Abstract All superalloys, whether precipitation hardened or not, are heated at some point in their production for a subsequent processing step or, as needed, to alter their microstructure. This chapter discusses the changes that occur in superalloys during heat treatment and the many reasons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
..., microstructure, and thermal history. Sensitization is particularly detrimental to austenitic stainless steels, and in many cases, eliminating it will eliminate the susceptibility to SCC. The chapter includes an extensive amount of data and illustrations. hydrogen embrittlement stainless steel stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090135
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Nickel and nickel-base alloys are specified for many applications, such as oil and gas production, power generation, and chemical processing, because of their resistance to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). Under certain conditions, however, SCC can be a concern. This chapter describes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090191
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... investigation, showing that IASCC can essentially be defined as the intergranular cracking of austenitic alloys in high-temperature water, where both the material and its environment have been altered by radiation. Of the many interactions that can occur when metals and water are exposed to radiation, the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Although zirconium resists stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) where many alloys fail, it is susceptible in Fe3+- and Cu2+-containing solutions, concentrated HNO3, halogen vapors, mercury, cesium, and CH3OH + halides. This chapter explains how composition, texture, stress levels, and...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract Glasses and ceramics are susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), as are metals, but the underlying mechanisms differ in many ways. One of the major differences stems from the lack of active dislocation motion that, in metals, serves to arrest cracks by reducing stress...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... Abstract ASTM and other standards organizations have developed a number of tests for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) under various conditions. This appendix lists many of the SCC tests that have been approved for specific materials and operating environments. stress corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410009
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... discovered many phases and microstructures associated with steel and gave them their now familiar names. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on the emergence of continuous casting and the subsequent development of strip casting production techniques. steel steelmaking STEEL, a workable...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Inclusions and chemical segregation are factors in many process-induced failures involving steel parts. Inclusions are nonmetallic compounds introduced during production; segregation is a type of chemical partitioning that occurs during solidification. This chapter discusses the origins of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Many metallic components, such as retorts in heat treat furnaces, furnace heater tubes and coils in chemical and petrochemical plants, waterwalls and reheater tubes in boilers, and combustors and transition ducts in gas turbines, are subject to oxidation. This chapter explains how...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... can be observed using metallographic techniques. It describes, and in many cases illustrates, the characteristic shapes, colors, and optical properties associated with aluminum alloy intermetallic phases and how they can be enhanced through selective etching. It provides an atlas of microstructures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Engineers have many materials to choose from when dealing with weight-related design constraints. The list includes aluminum, beryllium, magnesium, and titanium alloys as well as engineering plastics, structural ceramics, and polymer-, metal-, and ceramic-matrix composites. This...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
... Abstract Ceramic-matrix composites possess many of the desirable qualities of monolithic ceramics, but are much tougher because of the reinforcements. This chapter explains how reinforcements are used in ceramic-matrix composites and how they alter energy-dissipating mechanisms and load...