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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560465
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
...Abstract Abstract This appendix contains a table that correlates magnification values with true distance per centimeter as observed in light photomicrographs. light photomicrograph magnification ...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... that opens and closes the doors to the undercarriage compartment. The failed component was removed from the aircraft and examined using optical and electron microscopes. Under low magnification, the fracture surface appeared jagged except for one corner that was relatively smooth. SEM fractography revealed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270102
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract A design modification intended to reduce dowel bolt failures in an aircraft engine proved ineffective, prompting an investigation to determine what was causing the bolts to break. As the chapter explains, failure specimens were examined under various levels of magnification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Intergranular fracture in hardened steel, viewed under the scanning electron microscope. Note that fracture takes place between the grains; thus, the fracture surface has a “rock candy” appearance that reveals the shapes of part of the individual grains. Original magnification: 2000×. Source: Ref 10...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000139
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... for Metals , 1972 , p 157 – 192 Fig. D.1 Laves phase (white islands) has precipitated at dendrites in the gamma matrix. Optical microscope, original magnification 250x. Condition: Solution treated and aged—solution annealed 1 h at 1095 °C (2000 °F), air cooled, reannealed 1 h at 980 °C (1800 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... Adjust the field diaphragm at each change of magnification so the vanes just disappear outside the illuminated field. Adjust the aperture diaphragm (if equipped) wider for high N.A lenses, and narrower for low N.A. lenses to optimize resolution and contrast. Figure 10 Point sources just...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Table 1 Comparison of SEM and Optical Microscopy. Technique SEM Optical Microscope Resolution Few nm λ/2 ~ 250 nm Depth of field Large (up to mm) Very shallow (~λ) at high magnification Contrast Material composition, topography...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... observation. In this way, the normal and abnormal characteristics can be discerned and held in proper perspective. In this chapter we discuss the application of light microscopy, typically at magnifications between about 50 and 2000X, to the study of materials. Although a thorough understanding of optics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Fig. 5.17 (Part 1) Micrographs taken of the same field of a white cast iron by rotating a five-objective nosepiece through (a) 5×, (b) 10×, (c) 20×, (d) 50×, and (e) 100×. The white constituent is cementite, and the dark constituent is pearlite. 4% picral etch. Final magnification (a) 50×, (b) 100...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... as it is brought closer to the eye. In determining magnifying power, the true size of the object is what the image appears to the eye at 10 in. (25 cm). The 10-inch value is used as a standard because this is the distance from the eye one usually holds a small object when examining it. Linear magnification...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
... quenching after heating the bar at 1010 °C (1850 °F), which is above beta transus, for ½ h. Etchant: 10%HF-5%HNO 3 . Original magnification: 500× Fig. 7.11 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn extralow interstitial. Serrated alpha structure similar to that in Fig. 7.10 produced by water quenching the bar after heating...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... with a light microscope and those that can be examined only with an electron microscope at magnifications not attainable by a light microscope. Figure 5 shows the behavior that occurs within a typical ductile metal immediately prior to fracture due to a tensile force. Detailed study of these three...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sfa.t52780093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-268-6
.... Techniques in this area include visual examination, low-power magnification, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and photography. Dimensional inspection and related approaches for assessing suspected item dimensions and conformance to drawing and specification requirements and determining...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.gmpm.t51250257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-345-4
... diameter of gear showing where teeth broke off. Fatigue pattern on fracture surfaces is typical of reversed bending even though the gear was driven in only one direction. Original magnification at 0.6×. (b) Fracture surfaces of four teeth. Fatigue cracks propagated from both roots of each tooth. Arrows...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... to unfavorable rolling behavior. Original magnification: 700×. Source: Ref 6.4 Fig. 6.8 Peritectically-formed UAl 4 in an Al-6U alloy that was cooled from above liquidus to 760 °C (1400 °F) and held 10 min, then cooled to 600 °C (1110 °F) and held 7 days (peritectic temperature: 732 °C, or 1350 °F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... bar. (a) Crack indication 1 showing a crack length of 25 mm (0.99 in.) between arrows. (b) Crack indication 2 showing a crack length of 22 mm (0.85 in.) between arrows. Original magnification: 1.4× The fracture surfaces were examined visually and at up to 50× magnification using...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
.... Figure 12 Optical photo showing location of the multiple data lines (horizontal) feeding into buffers below. Figure 13 Photoemission from beneath the metallization at the input buffer damaged by CDM stress. There is no visible damage from a low magnification optical view. Figure 18...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... facets, free from signs of ductility ( Ref 18.8 ). Figure 18.4 shows the general characteristics of “classic” intergranular fracture. Fig. 18.1 Metallographic view of an intergranular crack penetrating a ferrite-pearlite matrix. 2% nital etch. Original magnification: 100× Fig. 18.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
..., and what orientation should be examined? How should the samples be prepared? What magnification should be used? How many fields should be measured? How should the data be analyzed and expressed? What conclusions can be drawn? These questions, which are not trivial, and their answers...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... an optical microscope, the more that is known about the material or can be relayed to the microscopist, the easier the analysis. In most cases, the relevant detail may be resolved from 25 to 100× magnification using reflected-light bright-field illumination. However, there are many cases where the full...