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magnetic etching

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter explains how to achieve accurate, sharp delineation of the microstructure of metals using appropriate etching and contrasting techniques. It covers a variety of methods, including chemical etching, heat tinting, gas contrasting, vapor deposition, magnetic etching...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.t55050245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
.... Microstructures can be seen through a microscope after workpieces are properly prepared and etched. The preparation techniques will be discussed later in this Chapter. Magnetic particle inspection is probably the most versatile in the types of defects that can be revealed. The Magnaflux tester is used...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... of 2 to 5% nitric acid (HNO 3 ) with methyl alcohol, a mixture often called nital—“nit” for the acid and “al” for the alcohol. This process is known as etching, which causes the shiny surface to become a dull color. If the sample is now viewed in an optical microscope at a magnification of 100...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... and magnetic particle testing account for about one-half of all NDT, ultrasonic inspection methods and x-ray methods account for about another third, eddy current testing about 10%, and all other methods total only about 2% ( Ref 7.11 ). Table 7.2 is a simplified breakdown of the complexity and relative...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... All of the parts were subjected to a magnetic particle inspection. In the strain bar, two cracks were found approximately 180° apart in the retainer ring groove location shown in Fig. 3 . The crack lengths were 22 and 25 mm (0.85 and 0.99 in.). No cracks were detected in the T-head. The radius...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... flaws that can impair forgeability. (a) Piece of unmelted consumable electrode (white spot near center). (b) Shelf (black line along edge) resulting from uneven solidification of the ingot. Source: Ref 1 Fig. 12 Grid pattern and prod positions used in one plant for the magnetic particle...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... each time they are prepared. This will provide consistency in etching response and timing. It is generally advised to always add the acid or solid material to the alcohol or water while stirring. This is performed by placing a beaker of the solvent (alcohol or water) on a magnetic stirring device...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
..., can form silicate stringers (silicon dioxide inclusions). Does not form a carbide in steels. Improves oxidation resistance. Added to special steels to improve electrical and magnetic properties as well as hardenability. Increases susceptibility to decarburization. Promotes graphitization in cast irons...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... and field oxide layers are visible. Figure 18 SEM of an integrated circuit after wet etching down to the poly gate layer. Figure 19 SEM image of an aluminum line with 10 nm of Au/Pd sputter coating. All the small dark jagged lines are sputter grain artifacts. Figure 20(a) SEM...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... The nondestructive testing methods discussed are liquid penetrant inspection, magnetic particle inspection, eddy current inspection, radiographic inspection, and ultrasonic testing. chemical analysis coordinate measuring machines hardness testing machine vision metallography nondestructive testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
... to enable these advanced techniques [25] . Figure 25 Relationship of resolution as a function of wavelength and NA for 2 commonly used standards. D is the resolvable distance between points [26] . Figure 26 Zachariasse et. al. ISTFA 2005 Etched Fresnel SIL lens using FIB...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... by the etchant. The areas of retained austenite are light colored. By properly adjusting the etching conditions, it is possible to identify bainite and martensite by their different colorations after etching. Etchant: sodium metabisulfite 10% in water. Courtesy of A.J. Abdalla and R.M. Anazawa, IEAv/CTA, S.J...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1988
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.eihdca.t65220241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-341-6
... times, the high heating rates of induction are needed for processing nonconductors. This chapter describes broad methods of accomplishing such objectives: modification of the field of magnetic induction, use of devices to prevent auxiliary equipment or certain portions of a workpiece from being heated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... x 178 mm (7 x 7 in.) cross section. The deformation ratio during rolling was measured as the ratio between the initial and final cross-sectional areas (a) 7:1, (b) 10:1, (c) 27:1, and (d) 49:1. Some remaining image of the dendritic structure of the billet can still be observed. Etchant: hot etching...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430325
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... with a thin adherent magnetite scale that was grayish black in color. Fig. 6.137 Portion of a failed superheater tube showing failure location Wet fluorescent magnetic particle inspection studies indicated hairline cracks emanating from the corner of the rupture contours ( Fig. 6.138a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.9781627083126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... (a) Ultrasonic, shear wave Ultrasonic, longitudinal wave Ultrasonic, surface wave Magnetic particle, dry Magnetic particle, wet fluorescent Penetrant, visible Penetrant, fluorescent Radiographic, gamma ray Radiographic, x-ray Eddy current, standard Eddy current, remote field Acoustic emission Visual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mfadr7.t91110335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-247-1
...A comparison of mass spectrometers. Table 2 A comparison of mass spectrometers. Quadrupole ToF Magnetic Sector Ion detection Serial Continuous Parallel detection Mass separation Modulating electric field Flight time Magnetic deflection Mass resolution 500 - 1000...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
.... A.2 Optical (light) microscopy Examination of small region or area of either unprepared or polished and normally etched surface at magnification of 25 to 1000×. Normally examination is of a sample cut from the bulk, but on-site examination and replication techniques are possible. Surface...