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macrostructure

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Figure 1-1 Cold etch of disc cut from small ingot (10% aqueous HNO 3 ). Figure 1-2 Macrostructure of centrifugally cast 99.8% aluminum after a minor amount of reduction (3¼ ×; etchant, solution of 5 mL HNO 3 , 5 mL HCl, 5 mL HF, and 95 mL H 2 O). (Courtesy of R. D. Buchheit...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
...Abstract Abstract This appendix provides a list of etch compositions and procedures that reveal the macrostructure of aluminum, beryllium, bismuth, antimony, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, titanium, zinc, and their respective alloys as well as iron, steel, noble metals...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the practices and procedures used to reveal and record macrostructural features such as hardening depth, weld thickness, crack size, porosity, hot folds, and machining and tooling marks. It provides information on sectioning, sample location, orientation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... on the micro and macrostructure of steel. References References 1. Properties and Selection—Irons, Steels and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , 10th edition , ASM International , 1990 2. “ Specification for Carbon Structural Steel ,” A36-12, ASTM International , 2012 3...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... taken place and showing weld crown with nonuniform curvature, 8×; and (b) inner surface with sharp ripples and deep undercuts indicating poor quality of weld, 8× Macrostructural examination also confirmed the very poor quality of the welding; gross weld porosities and deep undercuts on either...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... working axis. To facilitate handling, disc thickness should generally be 25 mm (1 in.) or less. Longitudinal sectioning is used to study fibering, segregation, and inclusions. Common uses of macroetching are given below. Solidification Structures Billet and Bloom Macrostructures Continuously Cast...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.stg2.t61280025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-267-9
... subdivided into cast and wrought (where wrought includes powder metallurgy processing) macrostructures. In addition to macrostructure, there are crystal structure (on an atomic level) and microstructure (visible under the microscope). Metals tend to have relatively simple crystal structures. When hard...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of Micro- or Macrostructural Features 18.3 Testing a Hypothesis 18.4 The Investigation 18.5 The Report 18.5.1 The Literature Review 18.5.2 The “Materials and Methods” or “Experimental Technique” Section 18.5.3 The Results 18.5.4 The Conclusions Sampling Traceability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
.... The objective of metallography is to accurately reveal material structure at the surface of a sample and/or from a cross-section specimen. For example, cross-sections cut from a component or sample may be macroscopically examined by light illumination in order to reveal various important macrostructural...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpmpa.t54480225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-318-8
.... 10.13 Macrostructure of rolled Ti-6Al-4V ring illustrating the predominantly tangential grain flow Fig. 10.14 The grain flow shown in this macrostructure of a closed-die radial section of a compressor wheel forging differs from that of the rolled ring in Fig. 10.13 . Fig. 10.9...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
..., distribution, and other such metrics. metallography One of the most interesting problems in evaluating micro- and macrostructures of metals is the fact that most available analytical techniques make it possible to observe two-dimensional sections of three-dimensional structures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... stresses (σ H ) are essential to cause the consolidation and elimination of “cavities” (pores, shrinkage cavity, etc.). Unfavorable stress states may even lead to rupture during forming. Source: Ref 2 Fig. 11.4 The effect of hot working on the macrostructure of a steel. (a) Dendritic structure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... due to the shearing of the screws that hold it in place. They also provided recommendations to remediate the problem. locking screws low pressure turbine discs macrostructural evaluation SEM fractography visual examination Summary Background Visual Examination of General Physical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... in larger dimensions, at a scale conventionally called macrostructural (mm scale). Figure 1.1 schematically depicts steel structural features in the ranges discussed. Properly controlling structure (at all scales) is one of the most important tools for producing steels with proper properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ttg2.t61120025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-269-3
.... Normally, ingots are 650 to 900 mm (26–36 in.) in diameter and weigh 3600 to 6800 kg (8,000–15,000 lb). Larger ingots are economically advantageous to use and are important in obtaining refined macrostructures and microstructures in very large sections, such as billets with diameters of 400 mm (16...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aet.t68260119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-336-2
... surface finish is obtained. Figure 18 shows the sump shape in a continuous horizontal casting of 6063 billet. Arase et al. ( Ref 16 ) found a correlation between casting speed and sump depth. Sump depth increases with the increase of casting speed. The macrostructure of the 9 in. (239 mm) diameter...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.9781627082600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aacppa.t51140001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-335-5
... microstructural and macrostructural tendencies. Solidification: Engineered castings are susceptible to internal and superficial defects. The complex geometries of shaped castings, fluid dynamics, and solidification mechanics combine to present unique and difficult challenges to the objective of dense...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.piht2.9781627083119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-311-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.9781627082587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7