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macroscopic process

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter describes several macroscopic examination techniques, including macroetching, contact printing, fracturing, and lead exudation. It explains how each method is implemented, why it is used, and what it reveals about manufacturing processes, defects, imperfections...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... of the problems of laboratory fatigue testing and of the fatigue process itself. Finally, information on types and statistical aspects of fatigue is provided along with examples. fatigue fracture laboratory fatigue testing macroscopic characteristics microscopic characteristics strength stress...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... responsible for the failure are some of the important features revealed by microscopy. These details are extremely useful in determining the mechanism of failure of components. In the investigation of major failures where a machine or structure has broken into a multitude of pieces, the microscopic processes...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
..., but also contribute to how a structural part will fail. Loading condition (including loading rate) plays an important role in the mode of structural failure, interacting with structural geometry and ambient environment to govern whether the failure mode is ductile or brittle. On a macroscopic scale, all...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapters discusses the basic steps in the failure analysis process. It covers examination procedures, selection and preservation of fracture surfaces, macro and microfractography, metallographic analysis, mechanical testing, chemical analysis, and simulated service testing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... of manufactured components and assemblies are covered in subsequent lessons. The reasons for component failures are usually related to problems of service conditions, design, material, and its specification, processing, and assembly, and they are often interrelated. Selected References...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... engineering components is generally a macroscopic phenomenon resulting from a series of microscopic and submicroscopic processes. Although molecular theories of polymer fracture are a subject of continuing research, practical fracture analysis is achievable from examining deformation events within...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of yellowness occurs when plastics are degraded, either during processing or from long-term exposure to heat or damaging radiation from ultraviolet or shorter wavelengths. Because it is so common, a standard test for yellowness (ASTM D 1925) was developed for transparent, nearly white, translucent, and opaque...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... is a natural process. Just like water flows to the lowest level, all natural processes tend toward the lowest possible energy states. Thus, for example, iron and steel have a natural tendency to combine with other chemical elements to return to their lowest energy states. In order to return to lower energy...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... not consider the microscopic mechanisms (i.e., slip, twinning, and cleavage) that cause fracture. A fracture may appear to be macroscopically brittle, but the cracking process may occur by a ductile mechanism. Examples in which the cracking mechanism is ductile but for which there is no or little visual...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
... References • Dillon C.P. , Corrosion Control in the Chemical Process Industries , MTI/Inco International , Houston , 1994 • Engel Peter H. , Impact Wear of Materials , Elsevier , Amsterdam , 1978 • “ Erosion: Prevention and Useful Applications STP 669 ,” Adler W.F...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... application. This is an inherent part of the materials selection process. This chapter introduces several types of component and material failure due to wear, temperature effects, and crack growth. Wear is an enormously expensive problem, but comparatively speaking, in terms of safety it is often...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... are usually small (below the macroscopic yield stress) and are static and tensile in nature. Applied stresses often add to a residual stress condition that exists within the structure. These residual stresses result from fabrication processes such as deep drawing, punching, rolling, mismatch in riveting...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... (corrosion) is also provided. failure analysis fracture distortion wear environmentally assisted corrosion FAILURE ANALYSIS is the process of collecting, examining, and interpreting damage evidence. The objective is to understand the possible conditions leading to a failure and perhaps prevent...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720365
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... these flaws include visual, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, ultrasonic, eddy current, and radiographic inspection. This chapter provides a detailed discussion on the characteristics, process steps, applications, advantages, and limitations of these methods. It also describes the flaws caused...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... manufactured from different composite materials under different processes and exposed to different environmental and load conditions. The fracture surfaces of the pedigreed test specimens are examined, documented, and analyzed to determine which features are specific to a particular material, process, load...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... to a range of fluctuating loads, mean stress levels, and variable frequencies. Thus, it is important to be able to predict the life of a component subjected to variable amplitude loading using data generated in constant amplitude laboratory tests. Cumulative damage theories consider the fatigue process...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pdub.t53420303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-310-2
... the formation of martensite and bainite in steel and other alloys. It describes the morphology of both types of structures, the factors that influence their formation, how they respond to tempering processes, and their effect on mechanical properties and behaviors. It also discusses the role of transformation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 April 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tpsfwea.t59300013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-323-2
.... , Springer , Berlin, Germany , 2017 10.1007/978-3-662-53081-8 • Singer I.L. , Pollack H.M. , Fundamentals of Friction: Macroscopic and Microscopic Processes , Springer , Berlin, Germany , 1995 • George Wells J. , Lubrication Fundamentals , Marcel Dekker , New York...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... by the imposed stress, gives rise to a complex process of growth and interaction of defects, which ultimately leads to the initiation of macroscopic cracks. A crack propagates first in a stable manner to a stage at which it undergoes a transition to unstable (uncontrolled) propagation. The lifetime...