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macroscopic examination

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Published: 01 September 2008
Fig. 88 Macroscopic examination of case depth at cross section of crankshaft bearing. Source: Ref 67 More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter describes several macroscopic examination techniques, including macroetching, contact printing, fracturing, and lead exudation. It explains how each method is implemented, why it is used, and what it reveals about manufacturing processes, defects, imperfections...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... at these three levels in failure analysis is described with examples. 4.1 Macroscopic Examination Macroscopic examination is carried out with unaided eye or a simple handheld magnifier, or a stereobinocular microscope with a magnification generally below 100 diameters. In the stereobinocular microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... of samples Preliminary examination of the failed part (visual examination and record keeping) Nondestructive testing (NDT) Mechanical testing (including hardness and toughness testing) Selection, identification, preservation, and/or cleaning of critical specimens Macroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
.... failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination IN THE STUDY OF ANY FAILURE, the analyst must consider a broad spectrum of possibilities or reasons for the occurrence. Often a large number of factors, frequently interrelated, must be understood to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to characterize cracking and fracture damage, and explains what to look for during macroscopic and microscopic examinations as well as chemical and metallographic analyses. It also includes nearly a dozen case studies investigating SCC failures in various materials. failure analysis macroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780404
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of macroscopic appearance, and the examination and interpretation of the features of fracture surfaces. In addition, the article considers several cases of field failure in various polymers to illustrate the applicability of available analytical tools in conjunction with an understanding of failure mechanisms...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... for a more detailed examination of the driven end of the shaft. cardan shaft torsional overload Summary A cardon shaft in an aircraft engine failed in service. Investigations revealed that the shaft failed due to torsional overload. Background A failed cardon shaft from an aircraft...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract A second-stage compressor blade in an aircraft engine fractured after 21 h of service. The remaining portion of the blade was removed and examined as were several adjacent blades. Based on the results of SEM fractography, microstructural analysis, and hardness testing, the blade failed...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract This chapter describes an investigation following an aircraft accident in which the main undercarriage struts had failed. Visual examination revealed that the starboard strut fractured about 13 cm from the end nearest the underside of the wing. A close-up view of the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 April 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.imub.t53720001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-305-8
... in metals and alloys. The objective of metallography is to accurately reveal material structure at the surface of a sample and/or from a cross-section specimen. For example, cross-sections cut from a component or sample may be macroscopically examined by light illumination in order to reveal various...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... Abstract A low-pressure turbine rotor blade failed during a test run, causing extensive damage to an aircraft engine. Visual examination showed that the nickel-base superalloy blade broke above the root platform in the airfoil section, leaving a fracture surface with two distinct regions, one...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... of samples Preliminary examination of the failed part Nondestructive and mechanical testing Selection, identification, preservation, and/or cleaning of specimens Macroscopic examination and analysis and photographic documentation Microscopic examination and analysis Selection, preparation...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... hammer hit. Macroscopic Examination The macroscopic examination is conducted by a detailed examination at 1 to 100× by eye or binocular microscope. High-quality optics with excellent depth of field are required to properly examine the fracture surfaces. This detailed macroscopic examination can...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
...) Macroscopic examination and analysis and photographic documentation (fracture surfaces, secondary cracks, and other surface phenomena) Microscopic examination and analysis using various light microscopy and electron microscopy techniques Selection and preparation of metallographic sections...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... characterization of a sectioned weld, including features such as number of passes; weld bead size, shape, and homogeneity; and the orientation of beads in a multipass weld. Macroscopic characterization is followed by microstructural analysis, including microsegregation, grain size and structure, the phase makeup...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... would be difficult. The lamp had two sets of metal posts with attached tungsten filaments. Macroscopic examination of the damaged headlamp gave very clear evidence ( Fig. 7.1 ) that particles of melted and solidified glass were sticking to one of the filaments. This filament must have been...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... are macroscopic discontinuities related to the contour of the weld beam or the joint. As such, they are readily detected visually or dimensionally. Surface discontinuities such as cracks are usually detected visually using liquid penetrant inspection or using magnetic particle inspection if the material...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... are examined during most investigations of failed structural components because these surfaces provide an actual physical record of the events at the time of failure. Fractographic analyses of the surfaces of metallic components reveal useful information about the cause and sequence of failure. Those surfaces...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... amount of information can be learned about a fatigue fracture with only macroscopic examination. That is, study with the unaided eye and relatively low magnification—up to perhaps 25 to 50×—is usually the most important single way to study and analyze fatigue fractures. In most cases, it is not necessary...