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macroscopic characteristics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... (initiation, propagation, and final rupture) of fatigue fracture followed by a discussion of its microscopic and macroscopic characteristics. The relationship between stress and strength in fatigue is explained. The next section provides information that may help the uninitiated to appreciate some...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... Abstract This chapter discusses field, visual, physical, and metallurgical examinations of gear failures. Physical examinations reviewed include nondestructive testing, including magnetic-particle inspection, tooth characteristic studies, surface hardness testing, ultrasonic testing, nital...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
... at these three levels in failure analysis is described with examples. 4.1 Macroscopic Examination Macroscopic examination is carried out with unaided eye or a simple handheld magnifier, or a stereobinocular microscope with a magnification generally below 100 diameters. In the stereobinocular microscope...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface irregularity, birefringence, and internal contamination must also be considered. These characteristics...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.t52320001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
... charged nucleus orbited by electrons. 1.3 Establishment of Metallography 1.3.1 Discovery of Microstructure A “microstructure world” exists between the “macroscopic world” of daily life and the “atomic and molecular world” of the fundamental elements of matter ( Fig. 1.4 ). It was R. Hooke...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
... Abstract Discontinuities are interruptions in the desirable physical structure of a weld. This article describes the types of weld discontinuities that are characteristic of the principal welding processes. Discontinuities covered are metallurgical discontinuities, discontinuities associated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... and nondestructive tests, preparing and examining fractographs and micrographs, determining failure mode, writing the report, and developing follow-up recommendations. It also examines the fundamental mechanisms of failure, why they occur, and how to identify them by their characteristic features. failure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the causes and effects of ductile and brittle fracture and their key differences. It describes the characteristics of ductile fracture, explaining how microvoids develop and coalesce into larger cavities that are rapidly pulled apart, leaving bowl-shaped voids...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article depicts typical fractographic features for a number of different composite materials, covering interlaminar and translaminar fracture characteristics in composite materials. fractography composites interlaminar fracture translaminar fracture FRACTURE SURFACES...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
.... failure analysis fractography macroscopic examination microscopic examination IN THE STUDY OF ANY FAILURE, the analyst must consider a broad spectrum of possibilities or reasons for the occurrence. Often a large number of factors, frequently interrelated, must be understood to determine the cause...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.tm.9781627083577
EISBN: 978-1-62708-357-7
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.omfrc.t53030245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-349-2
... Abstract Lightning damage in polymer composites, as in metal structures, is manifested by damage at both the macroscopic or visual level and within the material microstructure. In addition to visual damage assessment, non-destructive inspection techniques are employed to detect damage within...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 1985
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sagf.t63420185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-452-9
... and take the hardness readings as closely as reasonable to the crack. The teeth of both parts had been ground. Could this make a difference in case characteristics from one side to the other? Indeed it could, and often does. Therefore, a case hardness traverse at both radii is necessary...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ascaam.t59190vii
EISBN: 978-1-62708-296-9
... application, because the actual differentiation in the microstructural state on the cast part cross section leads to important heterogeneity on a macroscopic scale. Very often, material parameters of an alloy should be related directly to the microstructural state in selected cast part sections ( Ref 7 – 12...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... characterization techniques related to the dimensional scale at which they are applicable. Metallographic techniques (both micro- and macrographic) are applied to the structure characterization at the microscopic and macroscopic scales, respectively. The structural characteristics that are most relevant...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... nature of the fracture features. This chapter is a detailed account of the general characteristics and microstructural aspects of ductile fracture with suitable illustrations. It describes some of the complicating factors extraneous to the fracture itself. ductile fracture microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
... to characterize cracking and fracture damage, and explains what to look for during macroscopic and microscopic examinations as well as chemical and metallographic analyses. It also includes nearly a dozen case studies investigating SCC failures in various materials. failure analysis macroscopic examination...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.spsp2.t54410001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-265-5
... Together with steel chemistry, processing steps create the many microstructures that may form in each of the great variety of steels. The term microstructure derives its meaning from the fact that microscopy is required to resolve characteristic features of steel internal structures that range in size...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... Abstract This chapter describes several macroscopic examination techniques, including macroetching, contact printing, fracturing, and lead exudation. It explains how each method is implemented, why it is used, and what it reveals about manufacturing processes, defects, imperfections...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... in the production of plastics, or sliding wear and impact wear on components used in printing presses. Sometimes wear can operate in the presence of a corrosive or chemically active environment, thus compounding the rate of material removal. Certain material characteristics such as hardness, carbide type...