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macroscale characteristics

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... in order to cause brittle fracture in a normally ductile steel. The chapter then discusses the macroscale characteristics and microstructural aspects of brittle fracture. A summary of the types of embrittlement experienced by ferrous alloys is presented. The chapter concludes with a brief section...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cfap.t69780159
EISBN: 978-1-62708-281-5
... Abstract This article describes the basic approaches to improving the fire resistance of a polymeric material, considers the burning process on a microscale and macroscale, and discusses various test methods for determining the flammability characteristics of polymeric materials. Test methods...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... Abstract This chapter discusses the causes and effects of ductile and brittle fracture and their key differences. It describes the characteristics of ductile fracture, explaining how microvoids develop and coalesce into larger cavities that are rapidly pulled apart, leaving bowl-shaped voids or...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
... information on the causes and characteristics of residual stresses, distortion, and quench cracking of steel. austenite transformation continuous cooling transformation diagram cooling rate distortion isothermal transformation diagram quench cracking quenchants quenching steel THE...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540047
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... they reveal about the load-carrying characteristics of engineering materials. It then discusses the use of failure criteria and the determination of yielding and fracture limits. It goes on to describe the mechanisms and appearances of brittle and ductile fractures and stress rupture, providing...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540297
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... compare with metals. It begins by describing the fracture characteristics of ceramics and glasses along with typical properties and subcritical crack growth mechanisms. It then discusses the properties of engineering plastics and the factors affecting crack formation and growth, fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... nondestructive tests, preparing and examining fractographs and micrographs, determining failure mode, writing the report, and developing follow-up recommendations. It also examines the fundamental mechanisms of failure, why they occur, and how to identify them by their characteristic features. failure...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... nature of the fracture features. This chapter is a detailed account of the general characteristics and microstructural aspects of ductile fracture with suitable illustrations. It describes some of the complicating factors extraneous to the fracture itself. ductile fracture microstructure...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fec.t65940127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-302-7
... current densities, polarization characteristics, and physical variables such as anode-to-cathode area ratios and fluid velocity. It also discusses the effect of corrosion inhibitors, galvanic coupling, and external currents, making extensive use of polarization curves. chemical kinetics corrosion...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... Abstract This chapter examines the stress-strain characteristics of metals and alloys subjected to cyclic loading and the cumulative effects of fatigue. It begins by explaining how a single load reversal can lower the yield stress of a material and how repeated reversals can cause strain...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mmfi.t69540169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-309-6
... metallurgical and environmental variables and loading conditions. It also examines the crack growth resistance curves of several aluminum alloys and describes the characteristics of fracture when all or some of the applied load is in the plane of the crack. crack-tip plasticity fracture resistance...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... stress, and shear. A review of some of the loading geometries is presented in Ref 1 ; however, the three-dimensional characteristics of the fragments are not systematically presented. Armed with information on these basic fundamental loading geometries, one can learn to predict macroscale fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... least not on a visible macroscale. The sudden separation is analogous to that of a rubber suction cup being pulled from a smooth surface: the suction cup remains fixed until the separating force exceeds the force of the atmospheric pressure holding the cup in place, and then it pops off abruptly. In...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630035
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... reactive or balancing force. Residual stress systems may be described in three scales of magnitude: macro, micro, and lattice. Macroscale: This scale encompasses the entire cross section of a part. If the areas near the surface are in residual compression, for example, the areas near the center...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
.... Establishing the origin of a fracture is essential in failure analysis, and the location of the origin determines which measures should be taken to prevent a repetition of the fracture. The fracture surface characteristics that show the direction of crack propagation (and conversely, the direction toward the...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... material. The distinguishing characteristic of stainless, however, is the spontaneous passive film, which is so stable chemically. This film acts as a barrier to corrosion, which would result in metal release. Stainless therefore is effectively inert. Tests have been made of the rates at which metal ions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060385
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
.... Sometimes wear can operate in the presence of a corrosive or chemically active environment, thus compounding the rate of material removal. Certain material characteristics such as hardness, carbide type, and volume percent can have a decided impact on the wear resistance of a material in a given...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.9781627082709
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... depend on the local chemistry and impurity content of the metal. Thus, the corrosion is “uniform” only on a macroscale, not on a microscale. Since uniform corrosion is the most common form of corrosion, it is of the most economic significance and damages the greatest tonnage of metal. From a...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... these positive ions gather to form a solid crystalline structure, they are surrounded by a sea of essentially free electrons in what is referred to as a metallic bond. Most metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. The free electrons in the metallic bond are what lead to these characteristic...