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macrographic examination

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... reproduction, lighting, and image enhancement techniques. etching macrographic examination photographic reproduction sample preparation Macrographic examination is the examination under low or no magnification of a polished plane section of a part or a metallic sample, usually subjected...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
...). Notwithstanding the bad sample preparation for the macrographic examination (circular marks from the final machining operation can be seen), one can clearly see the segregates originated from the “A” segregates in the original ingot. These are located at about 1/4 thickness. Etchant: hot hydrochloric acid...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... for micrographs for larger parts or samples frequently depends on the results of a previous macrograph. When the macroscopic aspect is homogeneous, there is considerable freedom as to the exact region from where the sample for micrographic examination will be removed. If, however, the macrograph indicated...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... side) and a cross section in the axial-radial plane of the axis of Fig. 15.24 . The macrograph performed on the cut surface (left side) indicate the presence of a weld repair, with the weld-deposited metal in the lower part of the image, a wide heat-affected zone (around 5 mm, or 0.2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... surfaces were examined visually and at up to 50× magnification using a stereomicroscope. Figure 18 shows macrographs of the fracture surfaces. The circumferential fractures originated and terminated on the longitudinal crack. The longitudinal crack exhibited a single, intergranular-appearing origin...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220273
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... to preserve it for metallographic examination (indicated as Ni in the figure). The “white layer” is where the formation of high hardness nitrides occur. Tempered martensite. In the research that originated this sample, it was observed that the increase in steel chromium content increases the hardness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... discarded. A macrographic examination of the region close to fracture—that would have immediately revealed the weld—was not included in the original investigation testing plan and was only performed afterward, as shown in Fig. 15.25 in this book. Even though the root cause of the failure was correctly...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.faesmch.t51270150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-301-0
...Abstract Abstract This chapter discusses the failure of a compressor blade in an aircraft engine and explains how investigators determined the cause. Based on visual examination and the results of SEM fractography and chemical analysis, it was concluded that blade failed due to fatigue fracture...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mgppis.t60400087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-258-7
... Fig. 4.1 Henry Clifton Sorby, the father of metallography Fig. 4.2 The first macrograph of the microstructure of steel, Sorby’s 1864 macrograph of blister steel. Etched in very dilute nitric acid. 9× Fig. 4.4 A macrograph of the Elbogen iron meteorite prepared in 1808...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... to continuous casting, requiring conventional ingot casting, which rendered them economically inviable. Fig. 8.1 Macrograph of the longitudinal plane of an ingot of rimming steel. The CO bubbles formed during solidification offset the solidification shrinkage. No etching. Copyright © Wiley-VCH Verlag...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... of the heat-affected zone produced during flame cutting of these AISI S5 tool-steel gripping cams. Figure 1-34 Macrograph of a hardened, fractured, and blued macroetched disc revealing inclusion stringers (white streaks). Figure 1-35 Fractograph of wedge test specimen of cast iron...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560309
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... after the weld pool has passed. After Ref 20 . Fig. 11.28 (Part 4) (h) Progression of the weld pool during butt welding with a high-energy beam. Applies specifically to welding with a laser beam, but applies equally to electron-beam welding. Abstract Abstract This chapter examines...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... and pearlite. Etchant: nital 2%. Courtesy of ArcelorMittal Aços Longos, Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Fig. 14.38 Macrograph transverse to a SAW welded joint of 20MnMoNi55 steel. In the base metal, dendritic segregation (see Chapter 8, “Solidification, Segregation, and Nonmetallic Inclusions...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... to continue deformation increases (and thus so does the engineering stress) up to the start of the specimen “necking.” After this point, work hardening is no longer evident in the engineering stress-strain curve. Fig. 12.3 Macrograph of tensile specimen. Lüders bands are visible on the surface...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ffub.t53610055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-303-4
... fracture in an AISI 8740 steel nut due to hydrogen embrittlement. Failure was due to inadequate baking following cadmium plating; thus, hydrogen, which was picked up during the plating process, was not released. (a) Macrograph of fracture surface. (b) Higher-magnification view of the boxed area...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.uhcf3.t53630257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-270-9
... of the propagating fracture. A and B indicate sections of the vessel selected for examination. (b) Inside surface of specimen A showing the fracture origin at the toe of a nozzle weld (arrow). (c) Macrograph of the fracture origin showing the thumbnail crack on the fracture surface. Fig. 6 Specimen...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 September 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fahtsc.t51130503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-284-6
... ground out and rewelded. The repair welds reportedly cracked after only a few days in service. A visual examination revealed that neither the original welds nor the repair welds penetrated through to the inside of the pipe. The cracking consisted primarily of circumferential cracks down the center...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter examines the stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) failure of stainless steel pipe welds in boiling water reactor (BWR) service. It explains where most of the failures have occurred and provides relevant details about the materials of construction, fabrication...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmcs.t66560185
EISBN: 978-1-62708-291-4
... °C, oil quenched, tempered. Light macrograph of fracture surface. 5×. (b) Heated for 1 h at 1325 °C, cooled at 750 °C/h, heated at 850 °C, oil quenched, tempered. Section. Electrolytic ammonium nitrate. 100×. (c) Heated for 1 h at 1375 °C, cooled at 750 °C/h, heated at 850 °C, oil quenched...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.horfi.t51180151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-256-3
... Fig. 21 Arrangement of major components of portable metallographic laboratory for grinding and polishing. Equipment for examination and photography are also available. Image courtesy of Buehler Ltd. Fig. 3 Origin (at arrow) of a single-load brittle fracture that initiated at a small...