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low-temperature corrosion

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Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
... corrosion is an inadequate amount of oxygen in the burner zone. Under such circumstances, volatile compounds of sulfur, namely sodium and potassium pyrosulfates (Na 2 S 2 O 7 and K 2 S 2 O 7 ), with a low melting point (450 °C, or 840 °F), form. These compounds volatilize at high temperature and condense...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... refinery use of aluminum has been in vacuum towers, in which aluminum or aluminum coatings can provide resistance (at relatively low-flow conditions) to the naphthenic acid corrosion of tray components. Aluminized coatings are also used to protect low-alloy steels against high-temperature sulfidic...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract This chapter examines the hot corrosion resistance of various nickel- and cobalt-base alloys in gas turbines susceptible to high-temperature (Type I) and low-temperature (Type II) hot corrosion. Type I hot corrosion is typically characterized by a thick, porous layer of oxides...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mnm2.t53060315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-261-7
... metals low-melting-point metals nonferrous metals precious metals rare earth metals refractory metals semimetals superalloys corrosion-resistant alloys COMPARED WITH their steel counterparts, nonferrous metals and alloys are notable in their number and in the diversity of their properties...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... Abstract Nickel-base alloys used for low-temperature aqueous corrosion are commonly referred to as corrosion-resistant alloys (CRAs), and nickel alloys used for high-temperature applications are known as heat-resistant alloys, high-temperature alloys, or superalloys. The emphasis...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030176
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... Alloys Nickel-base alloys make up an important segment of the corrosion-resistant materials, taking over from stainless steels and other alloys as service temperature or environment corrosivity increases. Commercially pure nickel, Nickel 200 (N02200), or its low-carbon version, Nickel 201 (N02201...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
..., can suffer severe corrosion attack because of higher temperatures. Oil-ash corrosion can also occur in refinery and petrochemical furnaces burning low-grade fuels. The resistance of oil-ash corrosion for various alloys in both boilers and refinery/petrochemical furnaces is reviewed. Reference...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sap.t53000111
EISBN: 978-1-62708-313-3
... ratio should be selected. If the service temperature is not too high, an alloy that forms both γ″ and γ′ can be considered, which will provide strengthening at low to intermediate temperatures. Any composition that includes reactive elements such as yttrium, cerium, or lanthanum is desirable, because...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... steels (>0.2 wt% C), this process should be applied as soon as possible after welding to avoid the possibility of hydrogen-induced cracking from atmospheric corrosion. The weld must be cooled to a sufficiently low temperature to induce the austenite-to-martensite transformation (in principle, below...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... for the protection of most modern superalloys intended for duty as first-stage blades or buckets. Type II, or low-temperature hot corrosion, occurs in the metal temperature range of 650 to 700 °C (1200 to 1300 °F), well below the melting temperature of Na 2 SO 4 , which is 884 °C (1623 °F). This form...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pmsspmp.t52000203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-312-6
... in a low dew point sintering atmosphere, followed by rapid cooling Fig. 23 SEM of oxide-free surface of a sintered 316L Fig. 24 Photomicrograph of as-polished cross-section of a low temperature-sintered 316L part, showing presence of oxides along prior particle boundaries and within...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ts5.t65900291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-358-4
... carburized. As-quenched surface hardness of carburized molds may be as high as 65 HRC, but the resistance to softening of the carburized surface during tempering is relatively low, comparable to that of plain carbon steel. Figure 15-11 shows the effect of tempering temperature on the surface hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240547
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... that combine corrosion and heat resistance, superalloys for high-temperature applications, and special nickel alloys. Special nickel alloys include electrical-resistance alloys, low-expansion alloys, magnetically soft alloys, and shape memory alloys. The important class of nickel-base superalloys used for jet...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240433
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... to intergranular corrosion, a low carbon content is preferred, usually a maximum of 0.03 wt% C. Such a stainless steel is referred to as an “L” grade, for example, 304L and 316L. For aqueous corrosion resistance, the lower the carbon content the better the resistance. For high-temperature service, the opposite...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... temperature, as opposed to austenitics, which see their maximum susceptibility above room temperature. This limits these alloys’ ability to employ cathodic protection safely to –0.80 V sce , at which point corrosion in seawater is, if not eliminated, reduced to very low levels ( Ref 18 ). References...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080437
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... Abstract Carbon and low-alloy steels in high-temperature service are vulnerable to the effects of hydrogen attack, which include severe loss in tensile and rupture strengths as well as ductility. As the chapter explains, when steel is in contact with hydrogen molecules at elevated temperatures...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
... bacteria on corrosion, is addressed in a separate section. Acidity/Alkalinity A wide variety of acid or alkaline conditions are encountered in common environments. As shown in Fig. 1 , environments can range from strong acids, represented by low pHs (e.g., pH≤1); to neutral environments with pH 7...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.lmub.t53550141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-307-2
..., good ductility, and moderately high yield strength at temperatures up to ~120 °C (250 °F). Of these alloys, AZ91E has become prominent; it has almost completely replaced AZ91C because it has superior corrosion performance. In AZ91E, the iron, nickel, and copper contaminants are controlled to very low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 July 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.wip.t65930217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-359-1
.... The service properties of weldments in corrosive environments are considered and subjected to cyclic loading. The article summarizes the effects of major alloying elements in carbon and low-alloy steels on HAZ microstructure and toughness. It discusses the processes involved in controlling toughness...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cw.t51820001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-339-3
... microstructural changes but too low to cause any melting. Every position in the HAZ relative to the fusion line experiences a unique thermal experience during welding, in terms of both maximum temperature and cooling rate. Thus, each position has its own microstructural features and corrosion susceptibility...