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low-sulfur steel

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Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.sccmpe2.t55090043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-266-2
...Abstract Abstract This chapter addresses the issue of stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) in carbon and low-alloy steels. It discusses crack initiation, propagation, and fracture in aqueous chloride, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, hydroxide, ammonia, nitrate, ethanol, methanol, and hydrogen gas...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
.... Furthermore, very low sulfur steels frequently do not produce useful sulfur prints. Casey ( Ref 8 ) and ( Ref 11 ) developed some techniques to improve the observation of the macrographs taken from these steels. Use of Printing Ink (Ink Highlighting) Printing in Cellophane Tape (“Taping”) or Paper...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.emea.t52240349
EISBN: 978-1-62708-251-8
... directions is much less than in the longitudinal direction. Cerium can be substituted for manganese to form sulfides that are much more resistant to elongation during rolling. However, with the development of steelmaking practices that produce very low-sulfur steel, manganese is becoming less important...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1999
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cmp.t66770099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-337-9
... safe, and in the event of overheating, a reheat to 1200 °C reduces, if not eliminates, the effect. Thus, overheating is reversible. According to Ref 59 , RE or calcium modifications to a low sulfur steel can prevent overheating by raising the overheating temperature. McBride ( Ref 82 ) asserts...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.msisep.t59220129
EISBN: 978-1-62708-259-4
... of industrial flat products. Fig. 8.64 (a) Sulfur print of the transverse plane of a continuous cast low-carbon steel plate, with chemical composition close to the peritectic point (C = 0.13%, Mn = 0.65%, S = 0.010%, P = 0.017%). Discontinuous central segregation as well as small defects indicated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1984
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.mpp.t67850001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-260-0
... and interdendritic regions, segregate and matrix, and so forth allow the macrostructure to be observed. Because the solubility of solid sulfur in iron is very low, nearly all the sulfur is precipitated as sulfide inclusions. Sulfide distribution is influenced by the steel-making process, with the degree...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.fibtca.t52430290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-253-2
..., or chlorides present in the air, particularly in coastal areas. Fire-side SCC of austenitic stainless steel tubes is attributed to the presence of chlorides and sulfur-containing compounds, whereas that of carbon and low-alloy steels is normally due to concentrated sodium hydroxide. Polythionic acids (H 2...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.smnm.t52140055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-264-8
... for sulfur impurities causing embrittlement of steel when present at even extremely low concentrations: (1) The solubility of sulfur in both austenitic iron and ferritic iron is exceedingly low, being essentially zero, and (2) sulfur forms a chemical compound with iron, iron sulfide (FeS), that melts at 1190...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cub.t66910193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-250-1
...; to strong alkalis, represented by sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide at pH 14. Fig. 1 The pH of several common environments The measured pH of several common acids and alkalis are as follows: Hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid are strong acids and have low pH values. Boric acid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of sulfuric acid varies greatly with concentration. At low concentrations, sulfuric is a classic reducing acid. It dissociates in water to create hydrated hydrogen ions (H 3 O + ) that release hydrogen gas bubbles during the corrosion reaction. As the acid concentration increases, the solutions become more...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
..., especially when sulfur levels exceed 0.15%. It is well documented that sulfides negatively affect corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of stainless steels. Sulfur tends to form segregated films with low melting points during solidification. And, since these films are low strength, they may induce...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.aub.t61170123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-297-6
... restrictions. Sulfur and phosphorus negatively affect weld-ability, cold forming, forging, and so forth. Lead in steel wire causes a poor quality, low-strength welded or brazed joint. The lower-carbon grades can be used for case hardening operations while the grades containing more than 0.30% C can...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... are in chemical plants. Explosion-proof enclosures are sometimes required, and chemically resistant enclosures are necessary in other installations. Storage of sulfuric acid in strengths of 93% and above in low-carbon steel has met with some success in terms of vessel life. Anodic protection has been...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2007
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.htcma.t52080201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-304-1
... metals, such as, Mo, TZM, Nb, Ta, and V in comparison with conventional alloys in a sulfidizing environment with high sulfur and low oxygen potentials tested at 871 °C (1600 °F). Source: Ref 72 Fig. 7.40 Weight change data comparing nickel (a) with Ni-10Mo alloy (b) when tested at 550 and 600...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310155
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... of sulfur and oxygen to the grain boundaries and also encourages very large grains. This poor hot ductility manifests itself as “slivers,” which can require grinding of the entire hot band surface. These tendencies are fought by low oxygen and sulfur levels and minimal slab-reheating temperatures and times...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.phtbp.t59310095
EISBN: 978-1-62708-326-3
...-alloy steels (41<italic>xx</italic> series) Table 14 Designation and composition of common chromium-molybdenum low-alloy steels (41 xx series) Phosphorus and sulfur limits are 0.035 wt% P and 0.040 wt% S (max) for all grades Designation Composition, wt% AISI UNS C Mn Si Cr Mo...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... and pressures. Among the many metals and alloys that are available, relatively few are used for the construction of process equipment and piping ( Ref 1 ) due to the adverse influence on cost. However, materials used in process units include a wide variety of alloys, including carbon steel, cast irons, low...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.pht2.t51440097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-262-4
... Carbon Steels For the carbon steels discussed previously, sulfur and phosphorus were generally regarded as impurities; thus, it was desirable to keep their contents as low as possible. Free-machining carbon steels contain controlled amounts of these elements to improve machinability...
Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.cpi2.t55030025
EISBN: 978-1-62708-282-2
... protective oxide scale formed in sulfur-free oxidizing gas. (b) Sulfide-oxide scale formed in reducing conditions containing hydrogen sulfide. Courtesy of I.G. Wright, Battelle Columbus Division Fig. 1 Oxidation resistance of carbon, low-alloy and stainless steels in air after 100 h at temperatures...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Technical Books
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.tb.ssde.t52310001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-286-0
... may contain several percent of alloying elements, such as carbon, manganese, nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and silicon, in addition to the impurities sulfur, oxygen, and phosphorus. Alloy steels typically contain very small amounts of titanium, niobium, and aluminum. The total amount [1...